Small Business SEO

“Search marketing has grown in popularity as online search continues to evolve from a novelty to a standard feature in our everyday lives. Almost every business in the country, big or small and regardless of industry, has some kind of web presence, and everybody is competing for only a handful of positions at the top of search-engine results pages (SERPs).

Since larger companies — mega-corporations such as Walmart or Home Depot — already have millions of inbound links, decades of content, and a recurring base of online visitors, it’s no wonder why they generally appear in the top ranking positions when people search for commercial products. Regardless of what industry you’re in, you’ll always have at least one competitor who has been around longer and has tried harder than you have (allocated more budget and resources) to building their visibility on the web and in search engines.

So how can you, a small business with limited experience and resources, compete with that level of online domination?

Thankfully, search-engine optimization (SEO) is no longer about sheer volume. It’s not about who’s been on the web the longest, who has the most inbound links, or even who has the biggest library of great content. It’s about which page or website is the most relevant for the searcher. Knowing that, there are several strategies you can implement that can give you the edge over the bigger, badder competition.

1. Specialize in a niche.

One of the best things you can do as a small business is give yourself a niche focus. Instinctively, you might think that the better option for search visibility is to cover as many areas of expertise as possible. For example, if you work in heating, cooling, plumbing, roofing, construction and a dozen other home improvement topics, you’ll be able to appear in search engines for queries related to any of those keywords.

However, if you’re trying to take down your biggest competitors, it’s better to take more of a niche focus. Having several areas of specialization gives you relevance for a wide range of keywords, but your relevance for each of them is somewhat low. If you pour all your effort into one or a small handful of keywords, you’ll be able to achieve a much higher visibility.

For example, if you specialize in indoor plumbing, you might miss out on limited visibility for all those other home improvement keywords, but you’ll be the best in indoor plumbing.

2. Engage in a long-tail keyword strategy.

Long-tail keyword strategies try to accomplish a similar goal. In niche specialization, you sacrifice minimal relevance in a large volume of topics for maximum relevance in a much smaller volume of topics. With long-tail keywords, you’ll be sacrificing minimal ranking potential with highly popular keywords for maximum ranking potential with less popular keywords.

Long-tail keywords are extended phrases Google looks for, such as “tips for installing a toilet in an upstairs bathroom” instead of the much shorter, more popular “toilet installation.” Ranking highly for long-tail keywords is much easier than ranking high for shorter keywords, so even though they bring in less traffic, they’re still more valuable for small businesses to go after.

Fortunately, optimizing for long-tail keywords is easy. You can research ideal long-tail keywords to go after using Webmaster Tools, or you can just publish lots of great content — long-tail keyword phrases tend to appear naturally in the course of your writing. For further information on identifying and using long-tail keywords, see “The Rise of the Long-Tail Keyword for SEO” and “How to Find Long-Tail Keywords Once You’ve Identified Your Primary Keywords.”

3. Leverage locality for optimization.

Another way to beat the competition is by targeting a much more local audience. Local search is becoming more relevant and more important, so in today’s context, being the best barber shop in Houston is far better than being an OK barber shop on a national scale.

Even if your business does operate on a national (or international) level, you can still capture a niche market share and edge out your competition in at least one key area by optimizing for a specific local area. In this section, I’ll introduce a handful of specific strategies you can use to build your reputation and relevance in your given city.

Event attendance and community building. Get your name out there by getting involved in the community. Attend major events whenever you can, such as fairs, festivals or community gatherings. This will give you two opportunities: First, you’ll immediately generate more business simply by being at the event and offering discounts or promotions to event attendees. Second, and more importantly for SEO, you’ll have the opportunity to brag about your attendance online.

Post excellent content on your website, using local-specific keywords, about your company’s attendance, and syndicate a press release about the opportunity for some high-authority and local-specific inbound links. This is one of the easiest ways to generate publicity and build some local-optimized content simultaneously.

Local reviews, on directory and aggregation sites such as Yelp or TripAdvisor, have become essential for local SEO. With Google’s Pigeon algorithm update earlier this year, Yelp and similar sites received a huge boost in priority. Now, sites with large volumes of positive reviews rank higher than similar sites with few or negative reviews. In fact, Yelp’s importance has increased so much that, in some cases, Yelp profiles are actually ranking higher than the official pages of the companies they represent.

What this means for small businesses is a new, key opportunity to jump in the rankings without worrying about producing content or building links. Instead, you can focus on cultivating strong, positive reviews from your customers. While Yelp explicitly forbids compensating your reviewers, or asking customers directly for reviews in any way, you can still encourage more reviews with Yelp stickers and occasional call-outs with a link on your social-media profiles.

Hyper-local content. Local search is getting more local, and taking advantage of that incoming trend could be the opportunity you need to crush a larger competitor — especially if that competitor operates in the same city as you.

Google is getting better at identifying and categorizing neighborhoods within a broader city, so you can take local search a step further by using neighborhood-specific keywords instead of just city and state names. Your potential success is determined by how Google views your neighborhood boundaries, so do some research before you begin.

4. Personalize your social engagement.

Aside from local search optimization, you can also increase your chances of overcoming steep competition by stepping up the “personal” factor in your brand strategy. Large businesses tend to lose a portion of their personalities once they hit a certain point in their growth, but being small and nimble gives you the advantage of giving each follower a more personal, humanized experience.

Nurture your following on social media, and you’ll attract more posts and followers, and the bigger and more active your social-media presence is, the higher you’ll rank in Google.

5. Become a recognized, authoritative content publisher.

Building brand awareness, loyalty, trust and credibility requires frequent and quality content publication. Most companies utilize an on-site blog to publish content, while others produce and distribute ebooks, webinars, podcasts, videos and other forms of content through various other channels.

The keys to building your brand through a content strategy are quality and consistency. Maximize the reach of each piece of content you publish to maximize your return on investment, and be consistent with your publication schedule so you start to become recognized as a dependable authority.

Conclusion

There’s no shortcut to rise to the top of the search engine rankings, especially when there’s a massive competitor lingering on the scene. But with a strategy that leverages your geographic location and your agility, you can selectively overcome your competitors in specific key areas.

Give yourself the best odds by narrowing your topic and keyword focus and increasing your location-specific relevance. You might not rank for as many keywords as the bigger players, but you will be able to surpass them in relevance for your chosen focal points.” 

JAYSON DEMERS – Founder and CEO, AudienceBloom

CRM Solutions

Customer relationship management

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Customer relationship management (CRM) is a system for managing a company’s interactions with current and future customers. It often involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize sales,marketing, customer service, and technical support.[1]

CRM products

CRM products come with many features and tools and it is important for a company to choose a product based on their specific organizational needs. Most vendors will present information on their respective websites.

  • Features These are what the product actually does and what value it can provide to an organization.
  • Support Many CRM vendors have a basic level of support which generally only includes email and/or access to a support forum.[2][3][4] Telephone support is often charged in either an annual or ad hoc pricing strategy. Some companies offer on-site support for an extra premium.[5]
  • Pricing This will be shown either per-user[4] or as a flat price for a number of users.[6] Vendors charge annually, quarterly, or monthly with variable pricing options for different features.
  • Demonstration Periods Many vendors offer a trial period and/or online demonstrations.

Characteristics of CRM

  • Relationship management is a customer-oriented feature with service response based on customer input, one-to-one solutions to customers’ requirements, direct online communications with customer and customer service centers that help customers solve their issues.
  • Sales force automation. This function can implement sales promotion analysis, automate tracking of a client’s account history for repeated sales or future sales, and also сoordinate sales, marketing, call centers, and retail outlets in order to realize the salesforce automation.
  • Use of technology. This feature is about following the technology trends and skills of value delivering using technology to make “up-to-the-second” customer data available. It applies data warehouse technology in order to aggregate transaction information, to merge the information with CRM products, and to provide KPI (key performance indicators).
  • Opportunity management. This feature helps the company to manage unpredictable growth and demand and implement a good forecasting model to integrate sales history with sales projections.[7]
  • CRM in developing and maintaining client relationships.
  • Increasingly CRM is expanding outside of the core sales and marketing areas and systems are available that incorporate support and finance data also into the CRM view that a user gets, enabling a wider holistic view of a customer from one screen for a user.
  • Customer relationship management systems track and measure marketing campaigns over multiple networks. These systems can track customer analysis by customer clicks and sales.

CRM implementation

Implementing CRM in a company

The following are general guidelines on implementing a CRM system.

  1. Make a strategic decision on what problems you want your CRM system to address, what improvements or changes it should bring in the business processes of the organization.
  2. Choose an appropriate project manager. Typically IT will be engaged, however a manager with a customer service/sales and marketing business focus should be involved, as the impact of the project will be mainly on the business side.
  3. Ensure executive sponsorship and top management support.
  4. Empower team members with the required authority to complete the tasks.
  5. Select the correct implementation partner. They must have both vertical and horizontal business knowledge, as well as technical expertise.
  6. Define KPI’s that will measure the project’s success.
  7. Use a phased approach. Work towards long-term enterprise-scale implementation through a series of smaller, phased implementations.[8]

Impact of social networking on E-CRM

  1. A huge number of people use the Internet every day, various target different browsers website (social, cultural, political and other benefits), because there is a lot of information available that is easy to access quickly as needed. The majority of users through a variety of social networking sites, such as Facebook, LinkedIn and many other sites scrolling. Since these sites to provide users with a variety of services, including interactive with friends or business community to exchange information and interests. Research Balaram (2010)[9] presented evidence, a significant increase in the use of social networking sites, especially among young people. This causes companies to use effective means of attention these sites to sell their products, services and brands. Thus increasing demand for its products.
  1. Social Networks: It is an online service or online sites allow the establishment of an online community or group of people to interact and share common interests and activists. Such as Facebook, Twitter or chat rooms.[10]
  1. Availability of Internet services in this era is a revolution in the world of communications, where it allows users to send and retrieve information quickly with the central availability. In addition, by using a network of Internet data / network required to retrieve or send between folds in a simple manner can navigate. In addition, through the use of social networking sites, users can communicate and get information about other users, and even information about the company. This information describes individuals or companies. Promote the exchange and sharing of benefits. Social networking provides options for users to search and browse based on the needs and interests required information and access to them is. This will include the needs of the organization, in order to reach the largest number of individuals and the composition of the substrate vast level.Through social networking sites can create comments and suggestions of a special account or group can posts, and even job-related information and project work.
  1. Use of enterprise portals, especially exist; the integration and cooperation organizations, where the use of the Internet can be an important means to achieve the maximum benefit to the organization. In addition, the ability to manage and use information via the Internet organization, because the information from internal and external organization can. This increases the overall efficiency and regulations require businesses. It is possible to manage the business knowledge, and to provide information needed for a simple manner.[11] In addition, social networking sites to provide users with the possibility to build their own account, and add their own things or comments, for example, what they like, they hate, date of birth, place of residence and other problems. Therefore, it is easy to communicate with and contact them with the others, even some of the media to send a message or post notification. Users can also choose to select who will have permission to share or communicate, and build their own privacy options.
  1. In short, consider social networking as a platform for online businesses or individuals and effective tool, because it is free and easy to use. Therefore, it is possible for companies to adopt through effective communication and social interaction provides the company’s vision, from the advantages of this platform. And the company may exercise its own marketing, sales, and for their clients to provide services in a broad range. In addition, these sites can be deployed a lot of information, which will help the company move from its place to the whole world.

The impact of implementing CRM system on Customer Satisfaction

According to Bolton’s work, Customer satisfaction has significant implications for the economic performance of firms[12] Because customer satisfaction has been found to have a negative impact on customer complaints and a positive impact on customer loyalty and usage behavior.[13]

The benefits of implementing CRM are many, for example,

  1. Increased customer loyalty may increase usage levels [12]
  2. Secure future revenues [14]
  3. And minimize the likelihood of customer defection[15]

In a recent study, Anderson, Fornell, and Mazvancheryl (2004) find a strong relationship between customer satisfaction and Tobin’s q (as a measure of shareholder value) after controlling for fixed, random, and unobservable factors. The implementation of Customer relationship management (CRM) is likely to have an effect on customer satisfaction for at least three reasons:

Firstly, by implementing the CRM, the firms are able to customize their offerings for each customer. By accumulating information across customer interactions and processing this information to discover hidden patterns, CRM applications help firms customize their offerings to suit the individual tastes of their customers. Customized offerings enhance the perceived quality of products and services from a customer’s viewpoint. Because perceived quality is a determinant of customer satisfaction, it follows that CRM applications indirectly affect customer satisfaction through their effect on perceived quality.

Second, in addition to enhancing the perceived quality of the offering, CRM applications also enable firms to improve the reliability of consumption experiences by facilitating the timely, accurate processing of customer orders and requests and the ongoing management of customer accounts. For example, Piccoli and Applegate (2003) discuss how Wyndham uses IT tools to deliver a consistent service experience across its various properties to a customer. Both an improved ability to customize and a reduced variability of the consumption experience enhance perceived quality, which in turn positively affects customer satisfaction.[16]

Third, CRM applications also help firms manage customer relationships more effectively across the stages of relationship initiation, maintenance, and termination[17] In turn, effective management of the customer relationship is the key to managing customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.

Types

CRM in customer contact centers

CRM systems are customer relationship management platforms. The goal of the system is to track, record, store in databases, and then determine the information in a way that increases customer relations (predominantly increased ARPU, and decreased churn). The CRM codifies the interactions between you and your customers so that you can maximize sales and profit using analytics and KPIs to give the users as much information on where to focus their marketing and customer service to maximize revenue and decrease idle and unproductive contact with your customers. The contact channels (now aiming to be omni-channel from multi-channel) use such operational methods as contact centers. The CRM software is installed in the contact centers, and help direct customers to the right agent or self-empowered knowledge.[18] CRM software can also be used to identify and reward loyal customers over a period of time.

Growing in popularity is the idea of gamifying customer service environments. The repetitive and tedious act of answering support calls all day can be draining, even for the most enthusiastic customer service representative. When agents are bored with their work, they become less engaged and less motivated to do their jobs well. They are also prone to making mistakes. Gamification tools can motivate agents by tapping into their visceral need for reward, status, achievement, and competition.[19]

CRM in Business-to-Business (B2B) market

The modern environment requires one business to interact with another via the web. According to a Sweeney Group definition, CRM is “all the tools, technologies and procedures to manage, improve, or facilitate sales, support and related interactions with customers, prospects, and business partners throughout the enterprise”.[20] It assumes that CRM is involved in every B2B transaction.[7]

Despite the general notion that CRM systems were created for the customer-centric businesses, they can also be applied to B2B environments to streamline and improve customer management conditions. B2C and B2BCRM systems are not created equally and different CRM software applies to B2B and Business-to-Customer (B2C) conditions. B2B relationships usually have longer maturity times than B2C relationships. For the best level of CRM operation in a B2B environment, the software must be personalized and delivered at individual levels.[21]

Differences between CRM for Business to Business (B2B) and Business to Customers (B2C)

B2B and B2C marketing operates differently, and that is why they cannot use the same software. All the differences are focused on the approach of these two types of businesses:

  • B2B companies have smaller contact databases than B2C.
  • The amount of sales in B2B is relatively small.
  • In B2B there are less figure propositions, but in some cases they cost a lot more than B2C items.
  • Relationships in B2B environment are built over a longer period of time.
  • B2B CRM must be easily integrated with products from other companies. Such integration enables the creation of forecasts about customer behavior based on their buying history, bills, business success, etc.
  • An application for a B2B company must have a function to connect all the contacts, processes and deals among the customers segment and then prepare a paper.
  • Automation of sales process is an important requirement for B2B products. It should effectively manage the deal and progress it through all the phases towards signing.
  • A crucial point is personalization. It helps the B2B company to create and maintain strong and long-lasting relationship with the customer. To help the company communicate with their clients more effectively, there should be integration with the company’s email system.

SaaS CRM Software

Often referred to as “on-demand” software, SaaS based software is delivered via the Internet and does not require installation on your computer. Instead, you’ll generally access the software via your web browser. Businesses using the software do not purchase the software, but typically pay a recurring subscription fee to the software vendor.[22]

Small business

For small businesses a CRM system may simply consist of a contact manager system which integrates emails, documents, jobs, faxes, and scheduling for individual accounts. CRM systems available for specific markets (legal, finance) frequently focus on event management and relationship tracking as opposed to financial return on investment (ROI).

The issues and strength of small business

The poor management , lack of customer relationship management attention, first of all, from SME managers , many SME managers are more concerned about short-term interests , and for CRM,it is not obvious short-term interests is relatively insignificant.Second to small businesses from each department leaders, due to the limited knowledge of their culture, lead them to the customer relationship management system only know or heard of a phase, and implement customer relationship management (CRM) only has relationship with boss, has nothing to do with themselves, causing them to implement customer relationship management (CRM) is not value.Such as small and medium-sized enterprises in implementing customer relationship management system by introducing the customer relationship management system is not suitable, although its existing problems and realized immediately stop using the system, but the company finally did not introduce new customer relationship management (CRM) systems, are using artificial half automation of customer relationship management (CRM) system, this is because the company boss not value of customer relationship management and leadership, lead to small and medium-sized enterprise management level in customer relationship management (CRM) behind the big company of customer relationship management (CRM).In short, lead to small and medium-sized enterprises to realize the importance of customer relationship management (CRM) is not enough, thus leads to their not value of customer relationship management (CRM), so that make the company customer relationship management (CRM) exist behind the phenomenon with other small companies.

Low quality of employees – many SMEs are generally low education level of employees , personal qualities are not very high for customer relationship management concept in contemporary just do not understand how the proposed The wrong way to find customers – implement customer relationship management is the most important thing is to be familiar with the customer’s information, SMEs will be able to make a certain understanding and evaluation of each customer’s personality and behavior.(Yang Caidi,2008)

Small and medium-sized enterprises (smes) in customer relationship management (CRM), one of the most serious problems is the problem of the rights and responsibilities of the employee.As a customer relationship management system of the staff will have certain decisions, general small and medium-sized enterprises (smes) have what the customer wants and trading company in the first place is speak good deal with boss first, then contact customer relationship management, causes the staff has no right to talk to customer conditions, because the boss already talk to the customer good deal, but when the transaction problems, boss will put the blame on staff, why don’t blame them clear about customer’s information investigation beforehand, this kind of situation will lead to the customer relationship management staff have no motivation and enthusiasm in the work

1. Increase revenue – through (Data Mining) to enterprise resources and focus on betting valuable customers, and make the best understanding of consumer behavior patterns of customers, in order to promote the benefits of various marketing plan to improve sales performance 2. Increase profitability – the target customer base, increase the interaction between the consumer , in order to add new customers or existing customers to extend the life cycle. Through effective communication, businesses will be easier to maintain a customer’s loyalty and profitability 3. Reduce cost-CRM allows companies to better understand the customer, from the past to find customers for the product , to the needs of our customers today are designed products. Customer rather than product-oriented marketing strategy, companies can avoid unnecessary waste of resources in the absence of value on customer[23]

Social media

CRM often makes use of social media to build up customer relationships. Some CRM systems integrate social media sites like Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook to track and communicate with customers sharing their opinions and experiences with a company, products and services.[24] Enterprise Feedback Management software platforms such as Confirmit, Medallia, and Satmetrix combine internal survey data with trends identified through social media to allow businesses to make more accurate decisions on which products to supply.[25]

Non-profit and membership-based

Systems for non-profit and also membership-based organizations help track constituents, fund-raising, Sponsors demographics, membership levels, membership directories, volunteering and communication with individuals.

Customer-centric relationship management (CCRM)

CCRM is a style of customer relationship management that focuses on customer preferences instead of customer leverage. This is a nascent sub-discipline of traditional customer relationship management; to take advantage of changes in communications technology.

Customer centric organizations help customers make better decisions and it also helps drive profitability. CCRM adds value by engaging customers in individual, interactive relationships.[26]

Customer-centricity differs from client-centricity in that the latter refers almost exclusively to business-to-business models rather than customer-facing firms.

Features of CCRM

Customer-centric relationship management is used in marketing, customer service and sales, including:

  • tailored marketing,
  • one-to-one customer service,
  • retaining customers,
  • building brand loyalty,
  • providing information customers actually want,
  • subscription billing,
  • rewards.

Value-oriented customer relationship management

  1. As nowadays customers are becoming more demanding, and competitions are becoming more severe, and technology is more accelerating. More and more companies are seeking new ways to create and deliver better customer value in order to build and maintain close relationships with customers, thereby strengthening their sustainably competitive advantage. Therefore, a better understanding of customer value is the key to successful CRM application.[27]
  1. Customer value

Customer Value divided into functional value, social value, emotional value and perceived value. Functional value is that a product may offer convenient and methods to help customers solve problems in real life. The contribution of social value is that the responsibility and commitment of the customers – the customers through using their practical activities to satisfy the physical and psychic needs of society or others. Emotional value means that when the people’s physical needs are met, they begin to pursue social activities, self-esteem and achievement needs, mainly for seeking leisure, entertainment, lifestyle and emotional experience, such as a sense of interest, pleasure, and satisfaction. Perceived value refers to customers’ overall evaluation of the product or service, the cost that customer can perceive its benefits and pay.[27]

  1. Features of customer value

1. Closely related to customer value and provide material 2. Offer a customer from the customer’s perception of the utility of judgment, not by the vendor and other objective decision 3. Customer perceived value is perceived core interests, such as loss of interest and perceived quality trade-offs, interest and other utility. It is a customer of the product attributes, attribute effectiveness and use of the results of the evaluation 4. Preferences and perception of customer value, customer value and therefore the substance is considered to the desired level, based on customer perceived loss of profits and interest, such as the total cost includes monetary and non-monetization differences for products / services overall evaluation of the utility.

  1. Brand loyalty

For brand loyalty, definitely, brand loyalty is the key way for customers to achieve more profit.[27] Usually brand loyalty is considered to be a repeated purchase, but sometimes we cannot know if the customers are truly willing to have the second, third, or forth purchase. So there is another way which has been referred that is according to customers’ attitude to test their loyalty. Companies can send out questionnaires or web links that are about some choices comment on the different aspects on product and service. By using this way, companies can get some true feedback and purchase experience from customers in order to figure out if the customers are happy to use the product or not.

  1. Results

So only if the activities and operation of companies can stimulate the purchase motivation of customers,and good attitude and preference of brands such as repeat purchase and share good shopping experience to others ,basically it can be considered that enterprise has achieve a good performance on CRM. Also another benefit we can get is that good customer value and brand loyalty is a good drive to improve CRM performance, so providing better customer value and experience for customer is also a key way to implement CRM well. Accenture[28] and Emerald Insight[29] are now beginning to focus on CCRM as a discipline, with studies appearing on Mendeley.[30]

Adoption issues

In 2003, a Gartner report estimated that more than $2 billion had been spent on software that was not being used. According to CSO Insights, less than 40 percent of 1,275 participating companies had end-user adoption rates above 90 percent.[31] Many corporations only use CRM systems on a partial or fragmented basis.[32] In a 2007 survey from the UK, four-fifths of senior executives reported that their biggest challenge is getting their staff to use the systems they had installed. 43 percent of respondents said they use less than half the functionality of their existing systems.[33] Recently, it was found in a study that market research regarding consumers’ preferences may increase the adoption of CRM among the developing countries’ consumers.[34]

CRM Paradox

The CRM Paradox, also referred to as the “Dark side of CRM”,[35] entails favoritism and differential treatment of some customers. This may cause perceptions of unfairness among other customers’ buyers. They may opt out of relationships, spread negative information, or engage in misbehavior that may damage the firm. CRM fundamentally involves treating customers differently based on the assumption that customers are different and have different needs. Such perceived inequality may cause dissatisfaction, mistrust and result in unfair practices. A customer shows trust when he bonds in a relationship with a firm when he knows that the firm is acting fairly and adding value. However, customers may not trust that firms will be fair in splitting the value creation pie in the first place. For example, Amazon’s test use of dynamic pricing (different prices for different customers) was a public relations nightmare for the company.

Market leaders

The CRM market grew by 12.5 percent in 2012.[36] The following table lists the top vendors in 2006–2008 and 2013 (figures in millions of US dollars) published in Gartner studies.[37][38]

Vendor2013 Revenue2013 Share (%)2012 Revenue2012 Share (%)2008 Revenue2008 Share (%)2007 Revenue2007 Share (%)2006 Revenue2006 Share (%)
Salesforce.com CRM3,29216.12,525.614.096510.6676.58.3451.76.9
SAP AG2,62212.82,327.112.92,05522.52,050.825.31,681.725.6
Oracle2,09710.22,015.211.11,47516.11,319.816.31,016.815.5
Microsoft Dynamics CRM1,3926.81,135.36.35816.4332.14.1176.12.7
Others11,07654.110,086.855.73,62039.63,289.140.62,881.643.8
Total20,47610018,0901009,1471007,6741006,214100

Trends

In the Gartner CRM Summit 2010 challenges like “System tries to capture data from social networking traffic like Twitter, handles Facebook page addresses or other online social networking sites” were discussed and solutions were provided which would help in bringing more clientele.[39] Many CRM vendors offer subscription-based web tools (cloud computing) and software as a service (SaaS). Some CRM systems are equipped with mobile capabilities, making information accessible to remote sales staff. Salesforce.com was the first company to provide enterprise applications through a web browser, and has maintained its leadership position.[40]Traditional providers have recently moved into the cloud-based market via acquisitions of smaller providers: Oracle purchased RightNow in October 2011[41] and SAP acquired SuccessFactors in December 2011.[42]

The era of the “social customer”[43] refers to the use of social media (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Google Plus, Pinterest, Instagram, Yelp, customer reviews in Amazon, etc.) by customers. CR philosophy and strategy has shifted to encompass social networks and user communities.

Sales forces also play an important role in CRM, as maximizing sales effectiveness and increasing sales productivity is a driving force behind the adoption of CRM. Empowering sales managers was listed as one of the top 5 CRM trends in 2013.[44]

Another related development is vendor relationship management (VRM), which provide tools and services that allow customers to manage their individual relationship with vendors. VRM development has grown out of efforts by ProjectVRM at Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet & Society and Identity Commons‘ Internet Identity Workshops, as well as by a growing number of startups and established companies. VRM was the subject of a cover story in the May 2010 issue of CRM Magazine.[45]

In 2001, Doug Laney developed the concept and coined the term ‘Extended Relationship Management’ (XRM).[46] Laney defines XRM as extending CRM disciplines to secondary allies such as the government, press and industry consortia.

CRM futurist Dennison DeGregor describes a shift from ‘push CRM’ toward a ‘customer transparency’ (CT) model, due to the increased proliferation of channels, devices, and social media.[47]

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Shaw, Robert, Computer Aided Marketing & Selling (1991) Butterworth Heinemann ISBN 978-0-7506-1707-9
  2. Jump up^ http://opencrm.co.uk/support.html
  3. Jump up^ http://www.salesforce.com/uk/service-cloud/overview/
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/dynamics/dynamics-online-support.aspx
  5. Jump up^ TopTen Reviews CRM Software Review
  6. Jump up^ http://opencrm.co.uk/plans-and-pricing.html
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Yun E. Zeng, H. Joseph Wen, David C. Yen, “Customer relationship management (CRM) in business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce”, Emerald 11, (2003).
  8. Jump up^ Piskar F., Faganel A. (2009). A successful CRM Implementation Project in a Service Company: Case Study.Organizacija, Vol: 42, pp. 199-208
  9. Jump up^ Balaram, A., Adhikari, B. (2010), Managing Customer Relationships in Service Organizations. Administration and Management Review, 21(2), 65-78.
  10. Jump up^ Harrigan, P. and Miles, M. (2014). From e-CRM to s-CRM. Critical factors underpinning the social CRM activities of SMEs. Small Enterprise Research, 21(1), pp.99-116.
  11. Jump up^ O’Murchu, I., Breslin, J.G., & Decker, S. (2004). Online social and business networking communities, DERI Technical Report 2004-08-11, SIGKDD’03. Washington, DC.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b Bolton, Ruth N. (1998), “A Dynamic Model of the Duration of the Customer’s Relationship with a Continuous Service Provider: The Role of Satisfaction,” Marketing Science, 17 (1), 45–65.
  13. Jump up^ Fornell, Claes (1992), “A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience,” Journal of Marketing, 56 (January), 6-22
  14. Jump up^ Rust, Roland T., Christine Moorman, and Peter R. Dickson (2002), “Getting Return on Quality: Revenue Expansion, Cost Reduction, or Both?” Journal of Marketing, 66 (October), 7–24
  15. Jump up^ Fornell, Claes (1992), “A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience,” Journal of Marketing, 56 (January), 6–22
  16. Jump up^ Piccoli, Gabriele and L. Applegate (2003), “Wyndham International: Fostering High-Touch with High-Tech,” Case Study No. 9-803-092, Harvard Business School
  17. Jump up^ Reinartz, Werner, Manfred Krafft, and Wayne D. Hoyer (2004), “The Customer Relationship Management Process: Its Measurement and Impact on Performance,” Journal of Marketing Research, 41 (August), 293–305
  18. Jump up^ SAP Insider (15 November 2007) Still Struggling to Reduce Call Center Costs Without Losing Customers?
  19. Jump up^ Myron, David. DestinationCRM.com. Information Today, Inc. CRM in Customer Service http://www.destinationcrm.com/Articles/ReadArticle.aspx?ArticleID=99909 CRM in Customer Service. Retrieved 15 October 2014. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. Jump up^ Davenport, T.H., Harris, J.G., Kohli, A.K. (2001), “How do they know their customers so well?”, MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 42 No.2, pp.63-73.
  21. Jump up^ Rebekah Henderson, B2B Insights (2013) How to build a B2B-friendly CRM
  22. Jump up^ Cloud Taxonomy CRM Software as a Service
  23. Jump up^ Yang Caidi, (2008). Discuss and analyze the imorovements of strategy to CRM for SMEs, edition 22
  24. Jump up^ DestinationCRM.com (2009) Who Owns the Social Customer?
  25. Jump up^ Lester, Aaron (2013-04-23). “Seeking treasure from social media tracking? Follow the customer”. SearchBusinessAnalytics. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
  26. Jump up^ It’s all about the Customer, Stupid – The Importance of Customer Centric Partners
  27. ^ Jump up to:a b c Evans, M., Jamal, A. and Foxall, G. (2006). Consumer behaviour. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  28. Jump up^ Sales and Customer Services–CRM: Services Overview
  29. Jump up^ Customer-centric relationship management system development: A generative knowledge integration perspective
  30. Jump up^ CRM and customer-centric knowledge management: an empirical research
  31. Jump up^ Jim Dickie, CSO Insights (2006) Demystifying CRM Adoption Rates
  32. Jump up^ Joachim, David. “CRM tools improve access, usability.” (cover story). B to B 87, no. 3 (11 March 2002): 1
  33. Jump up^ David Sims, TMC.net (2007) CRM Adoption ‘Biggest Problem’ in 83 Percent of Cases
  34. Jump up^ Hasan, M. R., Rahman, M., And Khan, M. M. (2013). Rural Consumers’ Adoption of CRM in a Developing Country Context. International Journal of Business and Management Invention (IJBMI), 2(9), 121-131. [1]
  35. Jump up^ Nguyen, B. & Mutum, D. S. (2012). A review of customer relationship management: successes, advances, pitfalls and futures, Business Process Management Journal, 18 (3). 400-419 [2]
  36. Jump up^ Forbes.com (2013) 2013 CRM Market Share Update: 40% Of CRM Systems Sold Are SaaS-Based
  37. Jump up^ “Gartner Says Worldwide Customer Relationship Management Market Grew 23 Percent in 2007” (Press release). Gartner, Inc. 12 September 2008. Retrieved2008-08-15.
  38. Jump up^ “Gartner Says Worldwide CRM Market Grew 12.5 Percent in 2008” (Press release). Gartner, Inc. 15 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
  39. Jump up^ CRM Trends in Insurance IndustryCRM Trends in Insurance Industry: April, 2010
  40. Jump up^ Put Cloud CRM to WorkPC World: April, 2010
  41. Jump up^ Oracle Buys Cloud-based Customer Service Company RightNow For $1.5 BillionTechcrunch: 24 October 2011
  42. Jump up^ SAP Challenges Oracle With $3.4 Billion SuccessFactors Purchase Bloomberg Businessweek: 7 December 2011
  43. Jump up^ Greenberg, Paul (2009). CRM at the Speed of Light (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 7.
  44. Jump up^ “Top 5 CRM Trends for 2013”. Enterprise Apps Today. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  45. Jump up^ Destinationcrm.com CRM Magazine: May, 2010
  46. Jump up^ [3] The Great Enterprise Balancing Act: Extended Relationship Management (XRM), Doug Laney, META Group publication, 10 December 2001
  47. Jump up^ DeGregor, Dennison (2011). Customer-Transparent Enterprise: Beyond 20th Century CRM. Motivational Press.ISBN 1-935723-23-5.

SEO

Search engine optimization

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine‘s unpaid results – often referred to as “natural,” “organic,” or “earned” results. In general, the earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page), and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine’s users. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search, academic search,[1] news search and industry-specific vertical search engines.

As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, what people search for, the actual search terms or keywords typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content, HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks, or inbound links, is another SEO tactic.

The plural of the abbreviation SEO can also refer to “search engine optimizers,” those who provide SEO services.

History

Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s, as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. Initially, all webmasters needed to do was to submit the address of a page, or URL, to the various engines which would send a “spider” to “crawl” that page, extract links to other pages from it, and return information found on the page to be indexed.[2] The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine’s own server, where a second program, known as an indexer, extracts various information about the page, such as the words it contains and where these are located, as well as any weight for specific words, and all links the page contains, which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date.

Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results, creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan, the phrase “search engine optimization” probably came into use in 1997. Sullivan credits Bruce Clay as being one of the first people to popularize the term.[3] On May 2, 2007,[4] Jason Gambert attempted to trademark the term SEO by convincing the Trademark Office in Arizona[5] that SEO is a “process” involving manipulation of keywords, and not a “marketing service.” The reviewing attorney basically bought his incoherent argument that while “SEO” can’t be trademarked when it refers to a generic process of manipulated keywords, it can be a service mark for providing “marketing services…in the field of computers.”

Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag, or index files in engines like ALIWEB. Meta tags provide a guide to each page’s content. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable, however, because the webmaster’s choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site’s actual content. Inaccurate, incomplete, and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches.[6] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines.[7]

By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster’s control, early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. To provide better results to their users, search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results, rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search, poor quality or irrelevant search results could lead users to find other search sources. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms, taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. Graduate students at Stanford University, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, developed “Backrub,” a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. The number calculated by the algorithm, PageRank, is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links.[8]PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web, and follows links from one page to another. In effect, this means that some links are stronger than others, as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer.

Page and Brin founded Google in 1998.[9] Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet users, who liked its simple design.[10] Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency, meta tags, headings, links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. Although PageRank was more difficult to game, webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine, and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. Many sites focused on exchanging, buying, and selling links, often on a massive scale. Some of these schemes, or link farms, involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming.[11]

By 2004, search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation. In June 2007, The New York Times’ Saul Hansell stated Google ranks sites using more than 200 different signals.[12] The leading search engines, Google, Bing, and Yahoo, do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages. Some SEO practitioners have studied different approaches to search engine optimization, and have shared their personal opinions.[13] Patents related to search engines can provide information to better understand search engines.[14]

In 2005, Google began personalizing search results for each user. Depending on their history of previous searches, Google crafted results for logged in users.[15] In 2008, Bruce Clay said that “ranking is dead” because ofpersonalized search. He opined that it would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked, because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search.[16]

In 2007, Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank.[17] On June 15, 2009, Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links. Matt Cutts, a well-known software engineer at Google, announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way, in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting.[18] As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank. In order to avoid the above, SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes, Flash and Javascript.[19]

In December 2009, Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results.[20]

On June 8, 2010 a new web indexing system called Google Caffeine was announced. Designed to allow users to find news results, forum posts and other content much sooner after publishing than before, Google caffeine was a change to the way Google updated its index in order to make things show up quicker on Google than before. According to Carrie Grimes, the software engineer who announced Caffeine for Google, “Caffeine provides 50 percent fresher results for web searches than our last index…”[21]

Google Instant, real-time-search, was introduced in late 2010 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results.[22]

In February 2011, Google announced the Panda update, which penalizes websites containing content duplicated from other websites and sources. Historically websites have copied content from one another and benefited in search engine rankings by engaging in this practice, however Google implemented a new system which punishes sites whose content is not unique.[23]

In April 2012, Google launched the Google Penguin update the goal of which was to penalize websites that used manipulative techniques to improve their rankings on the search engine.[24]

In September 2013, Google released the Google Hummingbird update, an algorithm change designed to improve Google’s natural language processing and semantic understanding of web pages.

Relationship with search engines

By 1997, search engine designers recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines, and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords. Early search engines, such as Altavista and Infoseek, adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings.[25]

In 2005, an annual conference, AIRWeb, Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web was created to bring together practitioners and researchers concerned with search engine optimisation and related topics.[26]

Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results. In 2005, the Wall Street Journal reported on a company, Traffic Power, which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients.[27] Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban.[28] Google’s Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients.[29]

Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry, and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences, chats, and seminars. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization.[30][31] Google has a Sitemaps program to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website.[32] Bing Webmaster Tools provides a way for webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds, allows users to determine the crawl rate, and track the web pages index status.

Methods

Getting indexed

Search engines use complex mathematical algorithms to guess which websites a user seeks. In this diagram, if each bubble represents a web site, programs sometimes calledspiders examine which sites link to which other sites, with arrows representing these links. Websites getting more inbound links, or stronger links, are presumed to be more important and what the user is searching for. In this example, since website B is the recipient of numerous inbound links, it ranks more highly in a web search. And the links “carry through,” such that website C, even though it only has one inbound link, has an inbound link from a highly popular site (B) while site E does not. Note: percentages are rounded.

The leading search engines, such as Google, Bing and Yahoo!, use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically. Two major directories, the Yahoo Directory and DMOZ both require manual submission and human editorial review.[33] Google offers Google Webmaster Tools, for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found, especially pages that are not discoverable by automatically following links.[34] Yahoo! formerly operated a paid submission service that guaranteed crawling for a cost per click;[35] this was discontinued in 2009.[36]

Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site. Not every page is indexed by the search engines. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled.[37]

Preventing crawling

To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes, webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots.txt file in the root directory of the domain. Additionally, a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine’s database by using a meta tag specific to robots. When a search engine visits a site, the robots.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. The robots.txt file is then parsed, and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file, it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. In March 2007, Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam.[38]

Increasing prominence

A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results. Cross linking between pages of the same website to provide more links to important pages may improve its visibility.[39] Writing content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase, so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic.[39] Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site. Adding relevant keywords to a web page’s meta data, including the title tag and meta description, will tend to improve the relevancy of a site’s search listings, thus increasing traffic. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls, using the canonical link element[40] or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page’s link popularity score.

White hat versus black hat techniques

SEO techniques can be classified into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design, and those techniques of which search engines do not approve. The search engines attempt to minimize the effect of the latter, among them spamdexing. Industry commentators have classified these methods, and the practitioners who employ them, as either white hat SEO, or black hat SEO.[41] White hats tend to produce results that last a long time, whereas black hats anticipate that their sites may eventually be banned either temporarily or permanently once the search engines discover what they are doing.[42]

An SEO technique is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines’ guidelines and involves no deception. As the search engine guidelines[30][31][43] are not written as a series of rules or commandments, this is an important distinction to note. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines, but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users, not for search engines, and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders, rather than attempting to trick the algorithm from its intended purpose. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility,[44] although the two are not identical.

Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines, or involve deception. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden, either as text colored similar to the background, in an invisible div, or positioned off screen. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine, a technique known as cloaking.

Another category sometimes used is grey hat SEO. This is in between black hat and white hat approaches where the methods employed avoid the site being penalised however do not act in producing the best content for users, rather entirely focused on improving search engine rankings.

Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods, either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines’ algorithms, or by a manual site review. One example was the February 2006 Google removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices.[45] Both companies, however, quickly apologized, fixed the offending pages, and were restored to Google’s list.[46]

As a marketing strategy

SEO is not an appropriate strategy for every website, and other Internet marketing strategies can be more effective like paid advertising through pay per click (PPC) campaigns, depending on the site operator’s goals.[47] A successful Internet marketing campaign may also depend upon building high quality web pages to engage and persuade, setting up analytics programs to enable site owners to measure results, and improving a site’sconversion rate.[48]

SEO may generate an adequate return on investment. However, search engines are not paid for organic search traffic, their algorithms change, and there are no guarantees of continued referrals. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty, a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors.[49] Search engines can change their algorithms, impacting a website’s placement, possibly resulting in a serious loss of traffic. According to Google’s CEO, Eric Schmidt, in 2010, Google made over 500 algorithm changes – almost 1.5 per day.[50] It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic.[51]

International markets

Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. The search engines’ market shares vary from market to market, as does competition. In 2003, Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches.[52] In markets outside the United States, Google’s share is often larger, and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007.[53] As of 2006, Google had an 85–90% market share in Germany.[54] While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time, there were only about five in Germany.[54] As of June 2008, the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise.[55] That market share is achieved in a number of countries.

As of 2009, there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. In most cases, when Google is not leading in a given market, it is lagging behind a local player. The most notable example markets are China, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu, Yahoo! Japan, Naver, Yandex and Seznam are market leaders.

Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages, registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market, and web hosting that provides a localIP address. Otherwise, the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same, regardless of language.[54]

Legal precedents

On October 17, 2002, SearchKing filed suit in the United States District Court, Western District of Oklahoma, against the search engine Google. SearchKing’s claim was that Google’s tactics to prevent spamdexingconstituted a tortious interference with contractual relations. On May 27, 2003, the court granted Google’s motion to dismiss the complaint because SearchKing “failed to state a claim upon which relief may be granted.”[56][57]

In March 2006, KinderStart filed a lawsuit against Google over search engine rankings. Kinderstart’s website was removed from Google’s index prior to the lawsuit and the amount of traffic to the site dropped by 70%. On March 16, 2007 the United States District Court for the Northern District of California (San Jose Division) dismissed KinderStart’s complaint without leave to amend, and partially granted Google’s motion for Rule 11sanctions against KinderStart’s attorney, requiring him to pay part of Google’s legal expenses.[58][59]

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Beel, Jöran and Gipp, Bela and Wilde, Erik (2010). “Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co.” (PDF). Journal of Scholarly Publishing. pp. 176–190. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
  2. Jump up^ Brian Pinkerton. “Finding What People Want: Experiences with the WebCrawler”(PDF). The Second International WWW Conference Chicago, USA, October 17–20, 1994. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
  3. Jump up^ Danny Sullivan (June 14, 2004). “Who Invented the Term “Search Engine Optimization”?”. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 14, 2007.See Google groups thread.
  4. Jump up^ “Trademark/Service Mark Application, Principal Register”. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  5. Jump up^ “Trade Name Certification”. State of Arizona.
  6. Jump up^ Cory Doctorow (August 26, 2001). “Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw-men of the meta-utopia”. e-LearningGuru. Archived from the original on April 9, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  7. Jump up^ Pringle, G., Allison, L., and Dowe, D. (April 1998). “What is a tall poppy among web pages?”. Proc. 7th Int. World Wide Web Conference. Retrieved May 8,2007.
  8. Jump up^ Brin, Sergey and Page, Larry (1998). “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine”. Proceedings of the seventh international conference on World Wide Web. pp. 107–117. RetrievedMay 8, 2007.
  9. Jump up^ “Google’s co-founders may not have the name recognition of say, Bill Gates, but give them time: Google hasn’t been around nearly as long as Microsoft.”. 2008-10-15.
  10. Jump up^ Thompson, Bill (December 19, 2003). “Is Google good for you?”. BBC News. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
  11. Jump up^ Zoltan Gyongyi and Hector Garcia-Molina (2005). “Link Spam Alliances”(PDF). Proceedings of the 31st VLDB Conference, Trondheim, Norway. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  12. Jump up^ Hansell, Saul (June 3, 2007). “Google Keeps Tweaking Its Search Engine”. New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  13. Jump up^ Danny Sullivan (September 29, 2005). “Rundown On Search Ranking Factors”.Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  14. Jump up^ Christine Churchill (November 23, 2005). “Understanding Search Engine Patents”. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  15. Jump up^ “Google Personalized Search Leaves Google Labs”. searchenginewatch.com. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
  16. Jump up^ “Will Personal Search Turn SEO On Its Ear? | WebProNews”. www.webpronews.com. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
  17. Jump up^ “8 Things We Learned About Google PageRank”. www.searchenginejournal.com. Retrieved August 17,2009.
  18. Jump up^ “PageRank sculpting”. Matt Cutts. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
  19. Jump up^ “Google Loses “Backwards Compatibility” On Paid Link Blocking & PageRank Sculpting”. searchengineland.com. Retrieved August 17, 2009.
  20. Jump up^ “Personalized Search for everyone”. Google. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
  21. Jump up^ “Our new search index: Caffeine”. Google: Official Blog. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  22. Jump up^ “Relevance Meets Real Time Web”. Google Blog.
  23. Jump up^ “Google Search Quality Updates”. Google Blog.
  24. Jump up^ “What You Need to Know About Google’s Penguin Update”. Inc.com.
  25. Jump up^ Laurie J. Flynn (November 11, 1996). “Desperately Seeking Surfers”. New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  26. Jump up^ “AIRWeb”. Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web, annual conference. Retrieved Oct 4, 2012.
  27. Jump up^ David Kesmodel (September 22, 2005). “Sites Get Dropped by Search Engines After Trying to ‘Optimize’ Rankings”. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
  28. Jump up^ Adam L. Penenberg (September 8, 2005). “Legal Showdown in Search Fracas”.Wired Magazine. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  29. Jump up^ Matt Cutts (February 2, 2006). “Confirming a penalty”. mattcutts.com/blog. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  30. ^ Jump up to:a b “Google’s Guidelines on Site Design”. google.com. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
  31. ^ Jump up to:a b “Bing Webmaster Guidelines”. bing.com. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
  32. Jump up^ “Sitemaps”. google.com. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  33. Jump up^ “Submitting To Directories: Yahoo & The Open Directory”. Search Engine Watch. March 12, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  34. Jump up^ “What is a Sitemap file and why should I have one?”. google.com. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
  35. Jump up^ “Submitting To Search Crawlers: Google, Yahoo, Ask & Microsoft’s Live Search”. Search Engine Watch. March 12, 2007. RetrievedMay 15, 2007.
  36. Jump up^ “Yahoo Search Submit – Closed in Q4 of 2009”. rickramos.com. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
  37. Jump up^ Cho, J., Garcia-Molina, H. (1998). “Efficient crawling through URL ordering”. Proceedings of the seventh conference on World Wide Web, Brisbane, Australia. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  38. Jump up^ “Newspapers Amok! New York Times Spamming Google? LA Times Hijacking Cars.com?”.Search Engine Land. May 8, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  39. ^ Jump up to:a b “The Most Important SEO Strategy”. clickz.com. ClickZ. RetrievedApril 18, 2010.
  40. Jump up^ “Bing – Partnering to help solve duplicate content issues – Webmaster Blog – Bing Community”. www.bing.com. Retrieved October 30, 2009.
  41. Jump up^ Andrew Goodman. “Search Engine Showdown: Black hats vs. White hats at SES”. SearchEngineWatch. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  42. Jump up^ Jill Whalen (November 16, 2004). “Black Hat/White Hat Search Engine Optimization”. searchengineguide.com. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  43. Jump up^ “What’s an SEO? Does Google recommend working with companies that offer to make my site Google-friendly?”. google.com. RetrievedApril 18, 2007.
  44. Jump up^ Andy Hagans (November 8, 2005). “High Accessibility Is Effective Search Engine Optimization”. A List Apart. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  45. Jump up^ Matt Cutts (February 4, 2006). “Ramping up on international webspam”. mattcutts.com/blog. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  46. Jump up^ Matt Cutts (February 7, 2006). “Recent reinclusions”. mattcutts.com/blog. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  47. Jump up^ “What SEO Isn’t”. blog.v7n.com. June 24, 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
  48. Jump up^ Melissa Burdon (March 13, 2007). “The Battle Between Search Engine Optimization and Conversion: Who Wins?”. Grok.com. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  49. Jump up^ Andy Greenberg (April 30, 2007). “Condemned To Google Hell”. Forbes. Archived from the original on May 2, 2007. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  50. Jump up^ Matt McGee (September 21, 2011). “Schmidt’s testimony reveals how Google tests algorithm changes”.
  51. Jump up^ Jakob Nielsen (January 9, 2006). “Search Engines as Leeches on the Web”. useit.com. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
  52. Jump up^ Graham, Jefferson (August 26, 2003). “The search engine that could”. USA Today. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  53. Jump up^ Greg Jarboe (February 22, 2007). “Stats Show Google Dominates the International Search Landscape”. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  54. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mike Grehan (April 3, 2006). “Search Engine Optimizing for Europe”. Click. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
  55. Jump up^ Jack Schofield (June 10, 2008). “Google UK closes in on 90% market share”. London: Guardian. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
  56. Jump up^ “Search King, Inc. v. Google Technology, Inc., CIV-02-1457-M” (PDF). docstoc.com. May 27, 2003. Retrieved May 23, 2008.
  57. Jump up^ Stefanie Olsen (May 30, 2003). “Judge dismisses suit against Google”. CNET. RetrievedMay 10, 2007.
  58. Jump up^ “Technology & Marketing Law Blog: KinderStart v. Google Dismissed—With Sanctions Against KinderStart’s Counsel”. blog.ericgoldman.org. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
  59. Jump up^ “Technology & Marketing Law Blog: Google Sued Over Rankings—KinderStart.com v. Google”. blog.ericgoldman.org. Retrieved June 23, 2008.