Responsive Design

Responsive web design

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Responsive web design (RWD) is an approach to web design aimed at crafting sites to provide an optimal viewing experience—easy reading and navigation with a minimum of resizing, panning, and scrolling—across a wide range of devices (from desktop computer monitors to mobile phones).[1][2][3]

A site designed with RWD[1][4] adapts the layout to the viewing environment by using fluid, proportion-based grids,[5][6] flexible images,[7][8][9] and CSS3 media queries,[3][10][11] an extension of the @media rule, in the following ways:[12]

  • The fluid grid concept calls for page element sizing to be in relative units like percentages, rather than absolute units like pixels or points.[6]
  • Flexible images are also sized in relative units, so as to prevent them from displaying outside their containing element.[7]
  • Media queries allow the page to use different CSS style rules based on characteristics of the device the site is being displayed on, most commonly the width of the browser.

Related concepts

Mobile first, unobtrusive JavaScript, and progressive enhancement

“Mobile first”, unobtrusive JavaScript, and progressive enhancement are related concepts that predate RWD. Browsers of basic mobile phones do not understand JavaScript or media queries, so a recommended practice is to create a basic web site and enhance it for smart phones and PCs, rather than rely on graceful degradation to make a complex, image-heavy site work on mobile phones.[13][14][15][16]

Progressive enhancement based on browser-, device-, or feature-detection

Where a web site must support basic mobile devices that lack JavaScript, browser (“user agent”) detection (also called “browser sniffing“), and mobile device detection[14][17] are two ways of deducing if certain HTML and CSS features are supported (as a basis for progressive enhancement)—however, these methods are not completely reliable unless used in conjunction with a device capabilities database.

For more capable mobile phones and PCs, JavaScript frameworks like Modernizr, jQuery, and jQuery Mobile that can directly test browser support for HTML/CSS features (or identify the device or user agent) are popular.Polyfills can be used to add support for features—e.g. to support media queries (required for RWD), and enhance HTML5 support, on Internet Explorer. Feature detection also might not be completely reliable: some may report that a feature is available, when it is either missing or so poorly implemented that it is effectively nonfunctional.[18][19]

Challenges, and other approaches

Luke Wroblewski has summarized some of the RWD and mobile design challenges, and created a catalog of multi-device layout patterns.[20][21][22] He suggests that, compared with a simple RWD approach, device experience or RESS (responsive web design with server-side components) approaches can provide a user experience that is better optimized for mobile devices.[23][24][25] Server-side “dynamic CSS” implementation of stylesheet languages like Sass or Incentivated’s MML can be part of such an approach by accessing a server based API which handles the device (typically mobile handset) differences in conjunction with a device capabilities database in order to improve usability.[26] RESS is more expensive to develop, requiring more than just client-side logic, and so tends to be reserved for organizations with larger budgets. Google recommends responsive design for smartphone websites over other approaches.[27]

Although many publishers are starting to implement responsive designs, one ongoing challenge for RWD is that some banner advertisements and videos are not fluid.[28] However, search advertising and (banner) display advertising support specific device platform targeting and different advertisement size formats for desktop, smartphone, and basic mobile devices. Different landing page URLs can be used for different platforms,[29] orAjax can be used to display different advertisement variants on a page.[17][21][30] CSS tables permit hybrid fixed+fluid layouts.[31]

There are now many ways of validating and testing RWD designs,[32] ranging from mobile site validators and mobile emulators[33] to simultaneous testing tools like Adobe Edge Inspect.[34] The Firefox browser and the Chrome console offer responsive design viewport resizing tools, as do third parties.[35][36]

History

A site layout example that adapts to browser viewport width was first demonstrated by Cameron Adams in 2004.[37] By 2008, a number of related terms such as “flexible”, “liquid”,[38] “fluid”, and “elastic” were being used to describe layouts. CSS3 media queries were almost ready for prime time in late 2008/early 2009.[39] Ethan Marcotte coined the term responsive web design [40] (RWD)—and defined it to mean fluid grid/ flexible images/ media queries—in a May 2010 article in A List Apart.[1] He described the theory and practice of responsive web design in his brief 2011 book titled Responsive Web Design. Responsive design was listed as #2 in Top Web Design Trends for 2012 by .net magazine[41] after progressive enhancement at #1.

Mashable called 2013 the Year of Responsive Web Design.[42] Many other sources have recommended responsive design as a cost-effective alternative to mobile applications.

Forbes featured a piece, ‘Why You Need To Prioritize Responsive Design Now’ [43] where the importance was made clear that having a mobile version of your website isn’t enough anymore. Jody Resnick, President ofTrighton Interactive stated in his interview with Forbes, “Responsive websites simplify internet marketing and SEO. Instead of having to develop and manage content for multiple websites, businesses with responsive sites can take a unified approach to content management because they have only the one responsive site to manage.

Resnick predicts, “As the internet transforms further into a platform of services and user interfaces that tie those services together, leveraging this technology in the future will allow companies to integrate a plethora of back-end services, such as Facebook, Twitter, Salesforce.com, and Amazon Web Services, and then present the integrated data back out the front-end iad layer on a responsive design so the application looks great on all devices without custom coding needed for each device or screen size.”

Some believe that responsive design will be more prevalent than native apps simply because of the browser compatibility and the cost associated with programming the apps.

See also

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c Marcotte, Ethan (May 25, 2010). “Responsive Web design”. A List Apart.
  2. Jump up^ “Ethan Marcotte’s 20 favourite responsive sites”. .net magazine. October 11, 2011.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b Gillenwater, Zoe Mickley (Dec 15, 2010). “Examples of flexible layouts with CSS3 media queries”. Stunning CSS3. p. 320.ISBN 978-0-321-722133.
  4. Jump up^ Pettit, Nick (Aug 8, 2012). “Beginner’s Guide to Responsive Web Design”. TeamTreehouse.com blog.
  5. Jump up^ “Core concepts of Responsive Web design”. Sep 8, 2014.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b Marcotte, Ethan (March 3, 2009). “Fluid Grids”. A List Apart.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Marcotte, Ethan (June 7, 2011). “Fluid images”. A List Apart.
  8. Jump up^ Hannemann, Anselm (Sep 7, 2012). “The road to responsive images”. net Magazine.
  9. Jump up^ Jacobs, Denise (April 24, 2012). “50 fantastic tools for responsive web design”. .net Magazine.
  10. Jump up^ Gillenwater, Zoe Mickley (Oct 21, 2011). “Crafting quality media queries”.
  11. Jump up^ “Responsive design—harnessing the power of media queries”. Google Webmaster Central. Apr 30, 2012.
  12. Jump up^ W3C @media rule
  13. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (November 3, 2009). “Mobile First”.
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b Firtman, Maximiliano (July 30, 2010). Programming the Mobile Web. p. 512. ISBN 978-0-596-80778-8.
  15. Jump up^ “Graceful degradation versus progressive enhancement”. February 3, 2009.
  16. Jump up^ Designing with Progressive Enhancement. March 1, 2010. p. 456. ISBN 978-0-321-65888-3.
  17. ^ Jump up to:a b “Server-Side Device Detection: History, Benefits And How-To”. Smashing magazine. September 24, 2012.
  18. Jump up^ “BlackBerry Torch: The HTML5 Developer Scorecard | Blog”. Sencha. 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
  19. Jump up^ “Motorola Xoom: The HTML5 Developer Scorecard | Blog”. Sencha. 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
  20. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (May 17, 2011). “Mobilism: jQuery Mobile”.
  21. ^ Jump up to:a b Wroblewski, Luke (February 6, 2012). “Rolling Up Our Responsive Sleeves”.
  22. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (March 14, 2012). “Multi-Device Layout Patterns”.
  23. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (February 29, 2012). “Responsive Design … or RESS”.
  24. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (September 12, 2011). “RESS: Responsive Design + Server Side Components”.
  25. Jump up^ Andersen, Anders (May 9, 2012). “Getting Started with RESS”.
  26. Jump up^ “Responsive but not completely mobile optimised | Blog”. Incentivated.
  27. Jump up^ “Building Smartphone-Optimized Websites”. Google.
  28. Jump up^ Snyder, Matthew; Koren, Etai (Apr 30, 2012). “The state of responsive advertising: the publishers’ perspective”. .net Magazine.
  29. Jump up^ Google AdWords Targeting (Device Platform Targeting)
  30. Jump up^ JavaScript and Responsive Web DesignGoogle Developers
  31. Jump up^ Table Layouts in RWD
  32. Jump up^ Young, James (Aug 13, 2012). “Top responsive web design problems… testing”. .net Magazine.
  33. Jump up^ “Best mobile emulators and RWD testing tools”. The Mobile Web Design Blog. Nov 26, 2011.
  34. Jump up^ Rinaldi, Brian (September 26, 2012). “Browser testing… with Adobe Edge Inspect”.
  35. Jump up^ Responsive Design View in Firefox
  36. Jump up^ Viewport resizer
  37. Jump up^ Adams, Cameron (September 21, 2004). “Resolution dependent layout: Varying layout according to browser width”. The Man in Blue.
  38. Jump up^ CSS2 Liquid layout discussion
  39. Jump up^ CSS3 Media Queries Candidate Recommendation
  40. Jump up^ http://outseller.net/2015s-professional-responsive-web-design-offer-businesses/
  41. Jump up^ “15 top web design and development trends for 2012”. .net magazine. January 9, 2012.
  42. Jump up^ Cashmore, Pete (Dec 11, 2012). “Why 2013 Is the Year of Responsive Web Design”.
  43. Jump up^ Gunelius, Susan (March 13, 2013). “Why You Need To Prioritize Responsive Design Now”.

Website Maintenance

Affordable Web Solutions offers a premium fully managed WordPress hosting solution built on a load-balanced, redundant, all cloud technology infrastructure with 24/7/365 monitoring and response. So what does all that jargon really mean? It simply means we make sure your site is up and running.

eCommerce Web Design

eCommerce

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Electronic commerce, commonly known as eCommerce, is trading in products or services using computer networks, such as the Internet. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web for at least one part of the transaction’s life cycle, although it may also use other technologies such as e-mail.

E-commerce businesses may employ some or all of the following:

  • Online shopping web sites for retail sales direct to consumers
  • Providing or participating in online marketplaces, which process third-party business-to-consumer or consumer-to-consumer sales
  • Business-to-business buying and selling
  • Gathering and using demographic data through web contacts and social media
  • Business-to-business electronic data interchange
  • Marketing to prospective and established customers by e-mail or fax (for example, with newsletters)
  • Engaging in pretail for launching new products and services

Timeline

A timeline for the development of e-commerce:

Business applications

An example of an automated online assistant on a merchandising website.

Some common applications related to electronic commerce are:

Governmental regulation

In the United States, some electronic commerce activities are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). These activities include the use of commercial e-mails, online advertising and consumer privacy. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 establishes national standards for direct marketing over e-mail. The Federal Trade Commission Act regulates all forms of advertising, including online advertising, and states that advertising must be truthful and non-deceptive.[27] Using its authority under Section 5 of the FTC Act, which prohibits unfair or deceptive practices, the FTC has brought a number of cases to enforce the promises in corporate privacy statements, including promises about the security of consumers’ personal information.[28] As result, any corporate privacy policy related to e-commerce activity may be subject to enforcement by the FTC.

The Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008, which came into law in 2008, amends the Controlled Substances Act to address online pharmacies.[29]

There is also collaboration between Google and US federal authorities to block illegal online pharmacies from appearing in Google search results.[30] Recently FedEx Corporation pleaded not guilty to charges made against it regarding dealing with illegal online pharmacies.[31]

Conflict of laws in cyberspace [32] is a major hurdle for harmonisation of legal framework for e-commerce around the world. In order to give a uniformity to e-commerce law around the world, many countries adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996) [33]

Internationally there is the International Consumer Protection and Enforcement Network (ICPEN), which was formed in 1991 from an informal network of government customer fair trade organisations. The purpose was stated as being to find ways of co-operating on tackling consumer problems connected with cross-border transactions in both goods and services, and to help ensure exchanges of information among the participants for mutual benefit and understanding. From this came Econsumer.gov, an ICPEN initiative since April 2001. It is a portal to report complaints about online and related transactions with foreign companies.

There is also Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was established in 1989 with the vision of achieving stability, security and prosperity for the region through free and open trade and investment. APEC has an Electronic Commerce Steering Group as well as working on common privacy regulations throughout the APEC region.

In Australia, Trade is covered under Australian Treasury Guidelines for electronic commerce,[34] and the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission[35] regulates and offers advice on how to deal with businesses online,[36][37] and offers specific advice on what happens if things go wrong.[38]

In the United Kingdom, The Financial Services Authority (FSA)[39] was formerly the regulating authority for most aspects of the EU’s Payment Services Directive (PSD), until its replacement in 2013 by the Prudential Regulation Authority and the Financial Conduct Authority.[40] The UK implemented the PSD through the Payment Services Regulations 2009 (PSRs), which came into effect on 1 November 2009. The PSR affects firms providing payment services and their customers. These firms include banks, non-bank credit card issuers and non-bank merchant acquirers, e-money issuers, etc. The PSRs created a new class of regulated firms known as payment institutions (PIs), who are subject to prudential requirements. Article 87 of the PSD requires the European Commission to report on the implementation and impact of the PSD by 1 November 2012.[41]

In India, the Information Technology Act 2000 governs the basic applicability of e-commerce. It is based upon UNCITRAL Model but is not a comprehensive legislation to deal with e-commerce related activities in India. Further, e-commerce laws and regulations in India [42] are also supplemented by different laws of India as applicable to the field of e-commerce. For instance, e-commerce relating to pharmaceuticals, healthcare, traveling, etc. are governed by different laws though the information technology act, 2000 prescribes some common requirements for all these fields. The competition commission of India (CCI) regulates anti competition and anti trade practices in e-commerce fields in India.[43] Some stakeholders have decided to approach courts and CCI against e-commerce websites to file complaint about unfair trade practices and predatory pricing by such e-commerce websites.[44][45]

Forms

Contemporary electronic commerce involves everything from ordering “digital” content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to “meta” services to facilitate other types of electronic commerce.

On the institutional level, big corporations and financial institutions use the internet to exchange financial data to facilitate domestic and international business. Data integrity and security are very hot and pressing issues for electronic commerce.

Aside from traditional e-Commerce, m-Commerce as well as the nascent t-Commerce[46] channels are often seen as the current 2013 poster children of electronic I-Commerce.

Global trends

In 2010, the United Kingdom had the biggest e-commerce market in the world when measured by the amount spent per capita.[47] The Czech Republic is the European country where ecommerce delivers the biggest contribution to the enterprises´ total revenue. Almost a quarter (24%) of the country’s total turnover is generated via the online channel.[48]

Among emerging economies, China’s e-commerce presence continues to expand every year. With 384 million internet users, China’s online shopping sales rose to $36.6 billion in 2009 and one of the reasons behind the huge growth has been the improved trust level for shoppers. The Chinese retailers have been able to help consumers feel more comfortable shopping online.[49] China’s cross-border e-commerce is also growing rapidly. E-commerce transactions between China and other countries increased 32% to 2.3 trillion yuan ($375.8 billion) in 2012 and accounted for 9.6% of China’s total international trade [50] In 2013, Alibaba had an e-commerce market share of 80% in China.[51]

Other BRIC countries are witnessing the accelerated growth of eCommerce as well. Brazil’s eCommerce is growing quickly with retail eCommerce sales expected to grow at a healthy double-digit pace through 2014. By 2016, eMarketer expects retail ecommerce sales in Brazil to reach $17.3 billion.[52] India has an internet user base of about 243.2 million as of January 2014. Despite being third largest userbase in world, the penetration of Internet is low compared to markets like the United States, United Kingdom or France but is growing at a much faster rate, adding around 6 million new entrants every month. The industry consensus is that growth is at an inflection point. In India, cash on delivery is the most preferred payment method, accumulating 75% of the e-retail activities.

E-Commerce has become an important tool for small and large businesses worldwide, not only to sell to customers, but also to engage them.[53][54]

In 2012, ecommerce sales topped $1 trillion for the first time in history.[55]

Mobile devices are playing an increasing role in the mix of eCommerce. Some estimates show that purchases made on mobile devices will make up 25% of the market by 2017.[56] According to Cisco Visual Networking Index,[57] in 2014 the amount of mobile devices will outnumber the number of world population.

Impact on markets and retailers

Economists have theorized that e-commerce ought to lead to intensified price competition, as it increases consumers’ ability to gather information about products and prices. Research by four economists at the University of Chicago has found that the growth of online shopping has also affected industry structure in two areas that have seen significant growth in e-commerce, bookshops and travel agencies. Generally, larger firms are able to useeconomies of scale and offer lower prices. The lone exception to this pattern has been the very smallest category of bookseller, shops with between one and four employees, which appear to have withstood the trend.[58]

Individual or business involved in e-commerce whether buyers or sellers rely on Internet-based technology in order to accomplish their transactions. E-commerce is recognized for its ability to allow business to communicate and to form transaction anytime and anyplace. Whether an individual is in the US or overseas, business can be conducted through the internet. The power of e-commerce allows geophysical barriers to disappear, making all consumers and businesses on earth potential customers and suppliers. eBay is a good example of e-commerce business individuals and businesses are able to post their items and sell them around the Globe.[59]

Distribution channels

E-commerce has grown in importance as companies have adopted pure-click and brick-and-click channel systems. We can distinguish pure-click and brick-and-click channel system adopted by companies.

  • Pure-click or pure-play companies are those that have launched a website without any previous existence as a firm.
  • Bricks-and-clicks companies are those existing companies that have added an online site for e-commerce.
  • Click-to-brick online retailers that later open physical locations to supplement their online efforts.[60]

Examples of new E-commerce system

According to eMarketer research company, “by 2017, 65.8 per cent of Britons will use smartphones”. (cited by Williams, 2014)

Bringing online experience into the real world, allows also the development of the economy and the interaction between stores and customers. A great example of this new e-commerce system is what the Burberry store in London did in 2012. They refurbished the entire store with numerous big screens, photo-studios, and also provided a stage for live acts. Moreover, on the digital screens which are across the store, some fashion shows´ images and advertising campaigns are displayed. (William, 2014) In this way, the experience of purchasing becomes more vivid and entertaining while the online and offline components are working together. Another example could be Kiddicare smartphone app, in which costumers can compare prices against adversaries. Moreover, the app allows people to know where the sale products are and to check whether the item they are looking for is in stock or if they have to ask for it online without going to the `real´ store. (William, 2014) In the United States, Walmart app in which you can check the product availability and prices both online and offline. Moreover, you can also add to your shopping list items by scanning them, see their details and information, and check purchasers´ ratings and reviews.

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Power, Michael ‘Mike’ (19 April 2013). “Online highs are old as the net: the first e-commerce was a drugs deal”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  2. Jump up^ Tkacz, Ewaryst; Kapczynski, Adrian (2009). Internet — Technical Development and Applications. Springer. p. 255. ISBN 978-3-642-05018-3. Retrieved 28 March 2011. The first pilot system was installing in Tesco in the UK (first demonstrated in 1979 by Michael Aldrich).
  3. Jump up^ 1988 Palmer.C Using IT for competitive advantage at Thomson Holidays, Long range Planning Vol 21 No.6 p26-29, Institute of Strategic Studies Journal,London- Pergamon Press [now Elsevier.B.V.] December 1988.
  4. Jump up^ [ht:tp://www.studymode.com/essays/E-Commerce-1554293.html “E Commerce – Essays – Hpandurang92”]. Study mode. Retrieved 17 June2013.
  5. Jump up^ “Online shopping: The pensioner who pioneered a home shopping revolution”. BBC News. 16 September 2013.
  6. Jump up^ Aldrich, Michael. “Finding Mrs Snowball”. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  7. Jump up^ “The Electronic Mall”. GS Brown. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  8. Jump up^ “Tim Berners-Lee: WorldWideWeb, the first Web client”. W3. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  9. Jump up^ Snider, J.H.; Ziporyn, Terra (1992). Future Shop: How New Technologies Will Change the Way We Shop and What We Buy. St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 978-0-312-06359-7. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  10. Jump up^ “AppWrapper Volume 1 Issue 3 Ships” (press release).
  11. Jump up^ http://news.cnet.com/E-commerce-turns-10/2100-1023_3-5304683.html
  12. Jump up^ Kevin, Kelly (August 2005), “We Are the Web”, Wired 13(8)
  13. Jump up^ “FIrst Electronic Stamps Being Put to Test”.Sunday Business. 6 April 1998. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  14. Jump up^ “eBay acquires PayPal”. Investor. eBay. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  15. Jump up^ “Diane Wang: Rounding up the “Ant” Heroes”. Sino Foreign Management. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
  16. Jump up^ “R.H. Donnelley Acquires Business.com for $345M”. Domain Name Wire. Retrieved 4 September2011.
  17. Jump up^ “Amazon Buys Zappos; The Price is $928m, not $847m”. TechCrunch. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  18. Jump up^ Ahmed, Saqib Iqbal (27 October 2009). “GSI Commerce to buy Retail Convergence for $180 mln”. Reuters. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  19. Jump up^ “Groupon rejects Google’s $6 billion offer”.MS‐NBC. MSN. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  20. Jump up^ “Groupon’s IPO biggest by U.S. Web company since Google”. Reuters. 4 November 2011. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  21. Jump up^ “Amazon buys Diapers.com parent in $545 mln deal”. MarketWatch. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  22. Jump up^ “eBay Acquires GSI Commerce For $2.4 Billion in Cash And Debt”. TechCrunch. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  23. Jump up^ “2013 Holiday Season U.S. Desktop E-Commerce Spending Reaches Record $46.5 Billion, Up 10 Percent vs. Year Ago”. 7 January 2014. Retrieved27 August 2014.
  24. Jump up^ Duryee, Tricia (2014-03-04). “Overstock hits $1 million in sales from virtual currency”. Geekwire. Retrieved 2014-05-07.
  25. Jump up^ Laus, Petronela (8 January 2014). “India Weighs FDI In E-Commerce”. The Wall Street Journal India.
  26. Jump up^ “US eCommerce Forecast: 2013 to 2018”. Forrester Research.
  27. Jump up^ “Advertising and Marketing on the Internet: Rules of the Road”. Federal Trade Commission.
  28. Jump up^ “Enforcing Privacy Promises: Section 5 of the FTC Act”. Federal Trade Commission.
  29. Jump up^ “H.R. 6353: Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008”. Govtrack.
  30. Jump up^ “Illegal Online Pharmacies Are On Hit List Of Google And Federal Authorities Of US”. Exclusive Techno Legal Centre Of Excellence For Cyber Crimes Investigation In India. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  31. Jump up^ “FedEx Corporation Pleaded Not Guilty To U.S. Charges Of Delivering Prescribed Drugs From Illegal Internet Pharmacies”. E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  32. Jump up^ “Conflict Of Laws In Cyberspace, Internet And Computer Era”. Conflict Of Laws In Cyberspace, Internet And Computer Era. 9 October 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  33. Jump up^ “UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996)”. UNCITRAL. 12 June 1996. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  34. Jump up^ “Australian Treasury Guidelines for electronic commerce”. Australian Federal Government.
  35. Jump up^ “Australian Competition and Consumer Commission”. Australian Federal Government.
  36. Jump up^ “Dealing with Businesses Online in Australia”. Australian Federal Government.
  37. Jump up^ “Australian government ecommerce website”. Australian Federal Government.
  38. Jump up^ “What to do if thing go wrong in Australia”. Australian Federal Government.
  39. Jump up^ “FSA”. UK.
  40. Jump up^ George Parker and Brooke Masters (16 June 2010). “Osborne abolishes FSA and boosts Bank”. Financial Times.
  41. Jump up^ “The Payment Services Regulations 2009”. UK: Legislation. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  42. Jump up^ “E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India”. Online Business, E-Business And E-Tailing Laws And Regulations In India And E-Commerce Laws And Regulations In India. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  43. Jump up^ “India Should Regulate Taxation, Anti Competitive Practices And Predatory Pricing Of Indian And Foreign E-Commerce Websites”. E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  44. Jump up^ “FPBAI Questions The Predatory Pricing Tactics Of E-Commerce Websites Of India”. E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  45. Jump up^ “CAIT to launch nationwide protest against online retail cos”.Business Standard. 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  46. Jump up^ Hacon, Tom. “T-Commerce – What the tablet can do for brands and their consumers”. Governor Technology. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
  47. Jump up^ Robinson, James (28 October 2010). “UK’s internet industry worth £100bn”. The Guardian (report) (London). Retrieved 21 December2012.
  48. Jump up^ Eurostat (18 June 2013). “Ecommerce contribution in Europe” (infographic). Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  49. Jump up^ Olsen, Robert (18 January 2010). “China’s migration to eCommerce”. Forbes.
  50. Jump up^ Tong, Frank (16 September 2013). “China’s cross-border e-commerce tops $375 billion in 2012”. Internet Retailer.
  51. Jump up^ Steven Millward (17 September 2014). “Here are all the must-see numbers on Alibaba ahead of record-breaking IPO”.Tech In Asia. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  52. Jump up^ “More Buyers Join Brazil’s Robust Ecommerce Market”. eMarketer.
  53. Jump up^ Eisingerich, Andreas B.; Kretschmer, Tobias (March 2008). “In E-Commerce, More is More”. Harvard Business Review 86: 20–21.
  54. Jump up^ Burgess, S; Sellitto, C; Karanasios, S (2009), Effective Web Presence Solutions for Small Businesses: Strategies and Successful Implementation, IGI Global
  55. Jump up^ “Ecommerce Sales Topped $1 Trillion for First Time in 2012”. eMarketer. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
  56. Jump up^ Enright, Allison. “Top 500 U.S. E-Retailers — U.S. e-commerce sales could top $434 billion in 2017”. Internet Retailer. Retrieved 2014-05-30.
  57. Jump up^ “Cisco Visual Networking Index”.
  58. Jump up^ “Economics focus: The click and the dead”. The Economist. 3–9 July 2010. p. 78.
  59. Jump up^ O’Brien, A. J. & Marakas, M. G. (2011). Management Information Systems. 10e. New York: NY
  60. Jump up^ (Gap Inc/The) (2013-07-10). “Click-to-Brick: Why Online Retailers Want Stores in Real Life”. Business week. Retrieved 2014-05-30.

Payment Solutions

E-commerce payment system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An e-commerce payment system facilitates the acceptance of electronic payment for online transactions. Also known as a sample of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), e-commerce payment systems have become increasingly popular due to the widespread use of the internet-based shopping and banking.

Over the years, credit cards have become one of the most common forms of payment for e-commerce transactions. In North America almost 90% of online B2C transactions were made with this payment type.[1] Turban et al. goes on to explain that it would be difficult for an online retailer to operate without supporting credit and debit cards due to their widespread use. Increased security measures include use of the card verification number (CVN) which detects fraud by comparing the verification number printed on the signature strip on the back of the card with the information on file with the cardholder’s issuing bank.[2] Also online merchants have to comply with stringent rules stipulated by the credit and debit card issuers (Visa and MasterCard)[3] this means that merchants must have security protocol and procedures in place to ensure transactions are more secure. This can also include having a certificate from an authorized certification authority (CA) who provides PKI(Public-Key infrastructure) for securing credit and debit card transactions.

Despite widespread use in North America, there are still a large number of countries such as China, India and Pakistan that have some problems to overcome in regard to credit card security. In the meantime, the use of smartcards has become extremely popular. A Smartcard is similar to a credit card; however it contains an embedded 8-bit microprocessor and uses electronic cash which transfers from the consumers’ card to the sellers’ device. A popular smartcard initiative is the VISA Smartcard. Using the VISA Smartcard you can transfer electronic cash to your card from your bank account, and you can then use your card at various retailers and on the internet.

There are companies that enable financial transactions to transpire over the internet, such as PayPal. Many of the mediaries permit consumers to establish an account quickly, and to transfer funds into their on-line accounts from a traditional bank account (typically via ACH transactions), and vice versa, after verification of the consumer’s identity and authority to access such bank accounts. Also, the larger mediaries further allow transactions to and from credit card accounts, although such credit card transactions are usually assessed a fee (either to the recipient or the sender) to recoup the transaction fees charged to the mediary.

The speed and simplicity with which cyber-mediary accounts can be established and used have contributed to their widespread use, although the risk of abuse, theft and other problems—with disgruntled users frequently accusing the mediaries themselves of wrongful behavior—is associated with them.

Methods of Online Payment

Although credit cards are most popular in the US and some other countries, there are a few alternative systems.

Net Banking

This is a system, well known in India, that does not involve any sort of physical card. It is used by customers who have accounts enabled with Internet Banking. Instead of entering card details on the purchaser’s site, in this system the payment gateway allows one to specify which bank they wish to pay from. Then the user is redirected to the bank’s website, where one can authenticate oneself and then approve the payment. Typically there will also be some form of two-factor authentication.

It is typically seen as being safer than using credit cards, with the result that nearly all merchant accounts in India offer it as an option.

A very similar system, known as iDEAL, is popular in the Netherlands.

PayPal

PayPal is a global e-commerce business allowing payments and money transfers to be made through the Internet. Online money transfers serve as electronic alternatives to paying with traditional paper methods, such as cheque’s and money orders. It is subject to the US economic sanction list and other rules and interventions required by US laws or government. PayPal is an acquirer, a performing payment processing for online vendors, auction sites, and other commercial users, for which it charges a fee. It may also charge a fee for receiving money, proportional to the amount received. The fees depend on the currency used, the payment option used, the country of the sender, the country of the recipient, the amount sent and the recipient’s account type. In addition, eBay purchases made by credit card through PayPal may incur extra fees if the buyer and seller use different currencies. On October 3, 2002, PayPal became a wholly owned subsidiary of eBay. Its corporate headquarters are in San Jose, California, United States at eBay’s North First Street satellite office campus. The company also has significant operations in Omaha, Scottsdale, Charlotte and Austin in the United States; Chennai in India; Dublin in Ireland; Berlin in Germany; and Tel Aviv in Israel. From July 2007, PayPal has operated across the European Union as a Luxembourg-based bank

Google Wallet

Google Wallet was launched in 2011, serving a similar function as PayPal to facilitate payments and transfer money online. It also features a security that has not been cracked to date, and the ability to send payments as attachments via email.[4]

VTC Pay

VTC Pay is E- Commerce payment system, very well known in Vietnam. A moderate connector among Buyers, Sellers and Banks. It is on behalf of customers who have bank accounts to conduct receipt and payment transactions. Own the largest payment network in Vietnam with 29 domestic banks and 02 International Card Manufacturers Associations. In addition, VTC Pay Wallet is an electronic money storage service . It is used to conduct online payment such as e-commerce and electronic bill payment.

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Turban, E. King, D. McKay, J. Marshall, P. Lee, J & Vielhand, D. (2008). Electronic Commerce 2008: A Managerial Perspective. London: Pearson Education Ltd. p.550
  2. Jump up^ Turban, E. King, D. McKay, J. Marshall, P. Lee, J & Vielhand, D. (2008). Electronic Commerce 2008: A Managerial Perspective. London: Pearson Education Ltd. p.554
  3. Jump up^ Mastercard: Security Rules and Procedures-Merchant Edition (PDF). 2009. Retrieved: May 12, 2009
  4. Jump up^ http://www.google.com/wallet

CRM Solutions

Customer relationship management

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Customer relationship management (CRM) is a system for managing a company’s interactions with current and future customers. It often involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize sales,marketing, customer service, and technical support.[1]

CRM products

CRM products come with many features and tools and it is important for a company to choose a product based on their specific organizational needs. Most vendors will present information on their respective websites.

  • Features These are what the product actually does and what value it can provide to an organization.
  • Support Many CRM vendors have a basic level of support which generally only includes email and/or access to a support forum.[2][3][4] Telephone support is often charged in either an annual or ad hoc pricing strategy. Some companies offer on-site support for an extra premium.[5]
  • Pricing This will be shown either per-user[4] or as a flat price for a number of users.[6] Vendors charge annually, quarterly, or monthly with variable pricing options for different features.
  • Demonstration Periods Many vendors offer a trial period and/or online demonstrations.

Characteristics of CRM

  • Relationship management is a customer-oriented feature with service response based on customer input, one-to-one solutions to customers’ requirements, direct online communications with customer and customer service centers that help customers solve their issues.
  • Sales force automation. This function can implement sales promotion analysis, automate tracking of a client’s account history for repeated sales or future sales, and also сoordinate sales, marketing, call centers, and retail outlets in order to realize the salesforce automation.
  • Use of technology. This feature is about following the technology trends and skills of value delivering using technology to make “up-to-the-second” customer data available. It applies data warehouse technology in order to aggregate transaction information, to merge the information with CRM products, and to provide KPI (key performance indicators).
  • Opportunity management. This feature helps the company to manage unpredictable growth and demand and implement a good forecasting model to integrate sales history with sales projections.[7]
  • CRM in developing and maintaining client relationships.
  • Increasingly CRM is expanding outside of the core sales and marketing areas and systems are available that incorporate support and finance data also into the CRM view that a user gets, enabling a wider holistic view of a customer from one screen for a user.
  • Customer relationship management systems track and measure marketing campaigns over multiple networks. These systems can track customer analysis by customer clicks and sales.

CRM implementation

Implementing CRM in a company

The following are general guidelines on implementing a CRM system.

  1. Make a strategic decision on what problems you want your CRM system to address, what improvements or changes it should bring in the business processes of the organization.
  2. Choose an appropriate project manager. Typically IT will be engaged, however a manager with a customer service/sales and marketing business focus should be involved, as the impact of the project will be mainly on the business side.
  3. Ensure executive sponsorship and top management support.
  4. Empower team members with the required authority to complete the tasks.
  5. Select the correct implementation partner. They must have both vertical and horizontal business knowledge, as well as technical expertise.
  6. Define KPI’s that will measure the project’s success.
  7. Use a phased approach. Work towards long-term enterprise-scale implementation through a series of smaller, phased implementations.[8]

Impact of social networking on E-CRM

  1. A huge number of people use the Internet every day, various target different browsers website (social, cultural, political and other benefits), because there is a lot of information available that is easy to access quickly as needed. The majority of users through a variety of social networking sites, such as Facebook, LinkedIn and many other sites scrolling. Since these sites to provide users with a variety of services, including interactive with friends or business community to exchange information and interests. Research Balaram (2010)[9] presented evidence, a significant increase in the use of social networking sites, especially among young people. This causes companies to use effective means of attention these sites to sell their products, services and brands. Thus increasing demand for its products.
  1. Social Networks: It is an online service or online sites allow the establishment of an online community or group of people to interact and share common interests and activists. Such as Facebook, Twitter or chat rooms.[10]
  1. Availability of Internet services in this era is a revolution in the world of communications, where it allows users to send and retrieve information quickly with the central availability. In addition, by using a network of Internet data / network required to retrieve or send between folds in a simple manner can navigate. In addition, through the use of social networking sites, users can communicate and get information about other users, and even information about the company. This information describes individuals or companies. Promote the exchange and sharing of benefits. Social networking provides options for users to search and browse based on the needs and interests required information and access to them is. This will include the needs of the organization, in order to reach the largest number of individuals and the composition of the substrate vast level.Through social networking sites can create comments and suggestions of a special account or group can posts, and even job-related information and project work.
  1. Use of enterprise portals, especially exist; the integration and cooperation organizations, where the use of the Internet can be an important means to achieve the maximum benefit to the organization. In addition, the ability to manage and use information via the Internet organization, because the information from internal and external organization can. This increases the overall efficiency and regulations require businesses. It is possible to manage the business knowledge, and to provide information needed for a simple manner.[11] In addition, social networking sites to provide users with the possibility to build their own account, and add their own things or comments, for example, what they like, they hate, date of birth, place of residence and other problems. Therefore, it is easy to communicate with and contact them with the others, even some of the media to send a message or post notification. Users can also choose to select who will have permission to share or communicate, and build their own privacy options.
  1. In short, consider social networking as a platform for online businesses or individuals and effective tool, because it is free and easy to use. Therefore, it is possible for companies to adopt through effective communication and social interaction provides the company’s vision, from the advantages of this platform. And the company may exercise its own marketing, sales, and for their clients to provide services in a broad range. In addition, these sites can be deployed a lot of information, which will help the company move from its place to the whole world.

The impact of implementing CRM system on Customer Satisfaction

According to Bolton’s work, Customer satisfaction has significant implications for the economic performance of firms[12] Because customer satisfaction has been found to have a negative impact on customer complaints and a positive impact on customer loyalty and usage behavior.[13]

The benefits of implementing CRM are many, for example,

  1. Increased customer loyalty may increase usage levels [12]
  2. Secure future revenues [14]
  3. And minimize the likelihood of customer defection[15]

In a recent study, Anderson, Fornell, and Mazvancheryl (2004) find a strong relationship between customer satisfaction and Tobin’s q (as a measure of shareholder value) after controlling for fixed, random, and unobservable factors. The implementation of Customer relationship management (CRM) is likely to have an effect on customer satisfaction for at least three reasons:

Firstly, by implementing the CRM, the firms are able to customize their offerings for each customer. By accumulating information across customer interactions and processing this information to discover hidden patterns, CRM applications help firms customize their offerings to suit the individual tastes of their customers. Customized offerings enhance the perceived quality of products and services from a customer’s viewpoint. Because perceived quality is a determinant of customer satisfaction, it follows that CRM applications indirectly affect customer satisfaction through their effect on perceived quality.

Second, in addition to enhancing the perceived quality of the offering, CRM applications also enable firms to improve the reliability of consumption experiences by facilitating the timely, accurate processing of customer orders and requests and the ongoing management of customer accounts. For example, Piccoli and Applegate (2003) discuss how Wyndham uses IT tools to deliver a consistent service experience across its various properties to a customer. Both an improved ability to customize and a reduced variability of the consumption experience enhance perceived quality, which in turn positively affects customer satisfaction.[16]

Third, CRM applications also help firms manage customer relationships more effectively across the stages of relationship initiation, maintenance, and termination[17] In turn, effective management of the customer relationship is the key to managing customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.

Types

CRM in customer contact centers

CRM systems are customer relationship management platforms. The goal of the system is to track, record, store in databases, and then determine the information in a way that increases customer relations (predominantly increased ARPU, and decreased churn). The CRM codifies the interactions between you and your customers so that you can maximize sales and profit using analytics and KPIs to give the users as much information on where to focus their marketing and customer service to maximize revenue and decrease idle and unproductive contact with your customers. The contact channels (now aiming to be omni-channel from multi-channel) use such operational methods as contact centers. The CRM software is installed in the contact centers, and help direct customers to the right agent or self-empowered knowledge.[18] CRM software can also be used to identify and reward loyal customers over a period of time.

Growing in popularity is the idea of gamifying customer service environments. The repetitive and tedious act of answering support calls all day can be draining, even for the most enthusiastic customer service representative. When agents are bored with their work, they become less engaged and less motivated to do their jobs well. They are also prone to making mistakes. Gamification tools can motivate agents by tapping into their visceral need for reward, status, achievement, and competition.[19]

CRM in Business-to-Business (B2B) market

The modern environment requires one business to interact with another via the web. According to a Sweeney Group definition, CRM is “all the tools, technologies and procedures to manage, improve, or facilitate sales, support and related interactions with customers, prospects, and business partners throughout the enterprise”.[20] It assumes that CRM is involved in every B2B transaction.[7]

Despite the general notion that CRM systems were created for the customer-centric businesses, they can also be applied to B2B environments to streamline and improve customer management conditions. B2C and B2BCRM systems are not created equally and different CRM software applies to B2B and Business-to-Customer (B2C) conditions. B2B relationships usually have longer maturity times than B2C relationships. For the best level of CRM operation in a B2B environment, the software must be personalized and delivered at individual levels.[21]

Differences between CRM for Business to Business (B2B) and Business to Customers (B2C)

B2B and B2C marketing operates differently, and that is why they cannot use the same software. All the differences are focused on the approach of these two types of businesses:

  • B2B companies have smaller contact databases than B2C.
  • The amount of sales in B2B is relatively small.
  • In B2B there are less figure propositions, but in some cases they cost a lot more than B2C items.
  • Relationships in B2B environment are built over a longer period of time.
  • B2B CRM must be easily integrated with products from other companies. Such integration enables the creation of forecasts about customer behavior based on their buying history, bills, business success, etc.
  • An application for a B2B company must have a function to connect all the contacts, processes and deals among the customers segment and then prepare a paper.
  • Automation of sales process is an important requirement for B2B products. It should effectively manage the deal and progress it through all the phases towards signing.
  • A crucial point is personalization. It helps the B2B company to create and maintain strong and long-lasting relationship with the customer. To help the company communicate with their clients more effectively, there should be integration with the company’s email system.

SaaS CRM Software

Often referred to as “on-demand” software, SaaS based software is delivered via the Internet and does not require installation on your computer. Instead, you’ll generally access the software via your web browser. Businesses using the software do not purchase the software, but typically pay a recurring subscription fee to the software vendor.[22]

Small business

For small businesses a CRM system may simply consist of a contact manager system which integrates emails, documents, jobs, faxes, and scheduling for individual accounts. CRM systems available for specific markets (legal, finance) frequently focus on event management and relationship tracking as opposed to financial return on investment (ROI).

The issues and strength of small business

The poor management , lack of customer relationship management attention, first of all, from SME managers , many SME managers are more concerned about short-term interests , and for CRM,it is not obvious short-term interests is relatively insignificant.Second to small businesses from each department leaders, due to the limited knowledge of their culture, lead them to the customer relationship management system only know or heard of a phase, and implement customer relationship management (CRM) only has relationship with boss, has nothing to do with themselves, causing them to implement customer relationship management (CRM) is not value.Such as small and medium-sized enterprises in implementing customer relationship management system by introducing the customer relationship management system is not suitable, although its existing problems and realized immediately stop using the system, but the company finally did not introduce new customer relationship management (CRM) systems, are using artificial half automation of customer relationship management (CRM) system, this is because the company boss not value of customer relationship management and leadership, lead to small and medium-sized enterprise management level in customer relationship management (CRM) behind the big company of customer relationship management (CRM).In short, lead to small and medium-sized enterprises to realize the importance of customer relationship management (CRM) is not enough, thus leads to their not value of customer relationship management (CRM), so that make the company customer relationship management (CRM) exist behind the phenomenon with other small companies.

Low quality of employees – many SMEs are generally low education level of employees , personal qualities are not very high for customer relationship management concept in contemporary just do not understand how the proposed The wrong way to find customers – implement customer relationship management is the most important thing is to be familiar with the customer’s information, SMEs will be able to make a certain understanding and evaluation of each customer’s personality and behavior.(Yang Caidi,2008)

Small and medium-sized enterprises (smes) in customer relationship management (CRM), one of the most serious problems is the problem of the rights and responsibilities of the employee.As a customer relationship management system of the staff will have certain decisions, general small and medium-sized enterprises (smes) have what the customer wants and trading company in the first place is speak good deal with boss first, then contact customer relationship management, causes the staff has no right to talk to customer conditions, because the boss already talk to the customer good deal, but when the transaction problems, boss will put the blame on staff, why don’t blame them clear about customer’s information investigation beforehand, this kind of situation will lead to the customer relationship management staff have no motivation and enthusiasm in the work

1. Increase revenue – through (Data Mining) to enterprise resources and focus on betting valuable customers, and make the best understanding of consumer behavior patterns of customers, in order to promote the benefits of various marketing plan to improve sales performance 2. Increase profitability – the target customer base, increase the interaction between the consumer , in order to add new customers or existing customers to extend the life cycle. Through effective communication, businesses will be easier to maintain a customer’s loyalty and profitability 3. Reduce cost-CRM allows companies to better understand the customer, from the past to find customers for the product , to the needs of our customers today are designed products. Customer rather than product-oriented marketing strategy, companies can avoid unnecessary waste of resources in the absence of value on customer[23]

Social media

CRM often makes use of social media to build up customer relationships. Some CRM systems integrate social media sites like Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook to track and communicate with customers sharing their opinions and experiences with a company, products and services.[24] Enterprise Feedback Management software platforms such as Confirmit, Medallia, and Satmetrix combine internal survey data with trends identified through social media to allow businesses to make more accurate decisions on which products to supply.[25]

Non-profit and membership-based

Systems for non-profit and also membership-based organizations help track constituents, fund-raising, Sponsors demographics, membership levels, membership directories, volunteering and communication with individuals.

Customer-centric relationship management (CCRM)

CCRM is a style of customer relationship management that focuses on customer preferences instead of customer leverage. This is a nascent sub-discipline of traditional customer relationship management; to take advantage of changes in communications technology.

Customer centric organizations help customers make better decisions and it also helps drive profitability. CCRM adds value by engaging customers in individual, interactive relationships.[26]

Customer-centricity differs from client-centricity in that the latter refers almost exclusively to business-to-business models rather than customer-facing firms.

Features of CCRM

Customer-centric relationship management is used in marketing, customer service and sales, including:

  • tailored marketing,
  • one-to-one customer service,
  • retaining customers,
  • building brand loyalty,
  • providing information customers actually want,
  • subscription billing,
  • rewards.

Value-oriented customer relationship management

  1. As nowadays customers are becoming more demanding, and competitions are becoming more severe, and technology is more accelerating. More and more companies are seeking new ways to create and deliver better customer value in order to build and maintain close relationships with customers, thereby strengthening their sustainably competitive advantage. Therefore, a better understanding of customer value is the key to successful CRM application.[27]
  1. Customer value

Customer Value divided into functional value, social value, emotional value and perceived value. Functional value is that a product may offer convenient and methods to help customers solve problems in real life. The contribution of social value is that the responsibility and commitment of the customers – the customers through using their practical activities to satisfy the physical and psychic needs of society or others. Emotional value means that when the people’s physical needs are met, they begin to pursue social activities, self-esteem and achievement needs, mainly for seeking leisure, entertainment, lifestyle and emotional experience, such as a sense of interest, pleasure, and satisfaction. Perceived value refers to customers’ overall evaluation of the product or service, the cost that customer can perceive its benefits and pay.[27]

  1. Features of customer value

1. Closely related to customer value and provide material 2. Offer a customer from the customer’s perception of the utility of judgment, not by the vendor and other objective decision 3. Customer perceived value is perceived core interests, such as loss of interest and perceived quality trade-offs, interest and other utility. It is a customer of the product attributes, attribute effectiveness and use of the results of the evaluation 4. Preferences and perception of customer value, customer value and therefore the substance is considered to the desired level, based on customer perceived loss of profits and interest, such as the total cost includes monetary and non-monetization differences for products / services overall evaluation of the utility.

  1. Brand loyalty

For brand loyalty, definitely, brand loyalty is the key way for customers to achieve more profit.[27] Usually brand loyalty is considered to be a repeated purchase, but sometimes we cannot know if the customers are truly willing to have the second, third, or forth purchase. So there is another way which has been referred that is according to customers’ attitude to test their loyalty. Companies can send out questionnaires or web links that are about some choices comment on the different aspects on product and service. By using this way, companies can get some true feedback and purchase experience from customers in order to figure out if the customers are happy to use the product or not.

  1. Results

So only if the activities and operation of companies can stimulate the purchase motivation of customers,and good attitude and preference of brands such as repeat purchase and share good shopping experience to others ,basically it can be considered that enterprise has achieve a good performance on CRM. Also another benefit we can get is that good customer value and brand loyalty is a good drive to improve CRM performance, so providing better customer value and experience for customer is also a key way to implement CRM well. Accenture[28] and Emerald Insight[29] are now beginning to focus on CCRM as a discipline, with studies appearing on Mendeley.[30]

Adoption issues

In 2003, a Gartner report estimated that more than $2 billion had been spent on software that was not being used. According to CSO Insights, less than 40 percent of 1,275 participating companies had end-user adoption rates above 90 percent.[31] Many corporations only use CRM systems on a partial or fragmented basis.[32] In a 2007 survey from the UK, four-fifths of senior executives reported that their biggest challenge is getting their staff to use the systems they had installed. 43 percent of respondents said they use less than half the functionality of their existing systems.[33] Recently, it was found in a study that market research regarding consumers’ preferences may increase the adoption of CRM among the developing countries’ consumers.[34]

CRM Paradox

The CRM Paradox, also referred to as the “Dark side of CRM”,[35] entails favoritism and differential treatment of some customers. This may cause perceptions of unfairness among other customers’ buyers. They may opt out of relationships, spread negative information, or engage in misbehavior that may damage the firm. CRM fundamentally involves treating customers differently based on the assumption that customers are different and have different needs. Such perceived inequality may cause dissatisfaction, mistrust and result in unfair practices. A customer shows trust when he bonds in a relationship with a firm when he knows that the firm is acting fairly and adding value. However, customers may not trust that firms will be fair in splitting the value creation pie in the first place. For example, Amazon’s test use of dynamic pricing (different prices for different customers) was a public relations nightmare for the company.

Market leaders

The CRM market grew by 12.5 percent in 2012.[36] The following table lists the top vendors in 2006–2008 and 2013 (figures in millions of US dollars) published in Gartner studies.[37][38]

Vendor2013 Revenue2013 Share (%)2012 Revenue2012 Share (%)2008 Revenue2008 Share (%)2007 Revenue2007 Share (%)2006 Revenue2006 Share (%)
Salesforce.com CRM3,29216.12,525.614.096510.6676.58.3451.76.9
SAP AG2,62212.82,327.112.92,05522.52,050.825.31,681.725.6
Oracle2,09710.22,015.211.11,47516.11,319.816.31,016.815.5
Microsoft Dynamics CRM1,3926.81,135.36.35816.4332.14.1176.12.7
Others11,07654.110,086.855.73,62039.63,289.140.62,881.643.8
Total20,47610018,0901009,1471007,6741006,214100

Trends

In the Gartner CRM Summit 2010 challenges like “System tries to capture data from social networking traffic like Twitter, handles Facebook page addresses or other online social networking sites” were discussed and solutions were provided which would help in bringing more clientele.[39] Many CRM vendors offer subscription-based web tools (cloud computing) and software as a service (SaaS). Some CRM systems are equipped with mobile capabilities, making information accessible to remote sales staff. Salesforce.com was the first company to provide enterprise applications through a web browser, and has maintained its leadership position.[40]Traditional providers have recently moved into the cloud-based market via acquisitions of smaller providers: Oracle purchased RightNow in October 2011[41] and SAP acquired SuccessFactors in December 2011.[42]

The era of the “social customer”[43] refers to the use of social media (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Google Plus, Pinterest, Instagram, Yelp, customer reviews in Amazon, etc.) by customers. CR philosophy and strategy has shifted to encompass social networks and user communities.

Sales forces also play an important role in CRM, as maximizing sales effectiveness and increasing sales productivity is a driving force behind the adoption of CRM. Empowering sales managers was listed as one of the top 5 CRM trends in 2013.[44]

Another related development is vendor relationship management (VRM), which provide tools and services that allow customers to manage their individual relationship with vendors. VRM development has grown out of efforts by ProjectVRM at Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet & Society and Identity Commons‘ Internet Identity Workshops, as well as by a growing number of startups and established companies. VRM was the subject of a cover story in the May 2010 issue of CRM Magazine.[45]

In 2001, Doug Laney developed the concept and coined the term ‘Extended Relationship Management’ (XRM).[46] Laney defines XRM as extending CRM disciplines to secondary allies such as the government, press and industry consortia.

CRM futurist Dennison DeGregor describes a shift from ‘push CRM’ toward a ‘customer transparency’ (CT) model, due to the increased proliferation of channels, devices, and social media.[47]

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Shaw, Robert, Computer Aided Marketing & Selling (1991) Butterworth Heinemann ISBN 978-0-7506-1707-9
  2. Jump up^ http://opencrm.co.uk/support.html
  3. Jump up^ http://www.salesforce.com/uk/service-cloud/overview/
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/dynamics/dynamics-online-support.aspx
  5. Jump up^ TopTen Reviews CRM Software Review
  6. Jump up^ http://opencrm.co.uk/plans-and-pricing.html
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Yun E. Zeng, H. Joseph Wen, David C. Yen, “Customer relationship management (CRM) in business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce”, Emerald 11, (2003).
  8. Jump up^ Piskar F., Faganel A. (2009). A successful CRM Implementation Project in a Service Company: Case Study.Organizacija, Vol: 42, pp. 199-208
  9. Jump up^ Balaram, A., Adhikari, B. (2010), Managing Customer Relationships in Service Organizations. Administration and Management Review, 21(2), 65-78.
  10. Jump up^ Harrigan, P. and Miles, M. (2014). From e-CRM to s-CRM. Critical factors underpinning the social CRM activities of SMEs. Small Enterprise Research, 21(1), pp.99-116.
  11. Jump up^ O’Murchu, I., Breslin, J.G., & Decker, S. (2004). Online social and business networking communities, DERI Technical Report 2004-08-11, SIGKDD’03. Washington, DC.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b Bolton, Ruth N. (1998), “A Dynamic Model of the Duration of the Customer’s Relationship with a Continuous Service Provider: The Role of Satisfaction,” Marketing Science, 17 (1), 45–65.
  13. Jump up^ Fornell, Claes (1992), “A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience,” Journal of Marketing, 56 (January), 6-22
  14. Jump up^ Rust, Roland T., Christine Moorman, and Peter R. Dickson (2002), “Getting Return on Quality: Revenue Expansion, Cost Reduction, or Both?” Journal of Marketing, 66 (October), 7–24
  15. Jump up^ Fornell, Claes (1992), “A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience,” Journal of Marketing, 56 (January), 6–22
  16. Jump up^ Piccoli, Gabriele and L. Applegate (2003), “Wyndham International: Fostering High-Touch with High-Tech,” Case Study No. 9-803-092, Harvard Business School
  17. Jump up^ Reinartz, Werner, Manfred Krafft, and Wayne D. Hoyer (2004), “The Customer Relationship Management Process: Its Measurement and Impact on Performance,” Journal of Marketing Research, 41 (August), 293–305
  18. Jump up^ SAP Insider (15 November 2007) Still Struggling to Reduce Call Center Costs Without Losing Customers?
  19. Jump up^ Myron, David. DestinationCRM.com. Information Today, Inc. CRM in Customer Service http://www.destinationcrm.com/Articles/ReadArticle.aspx?ArticleID=99909 CRM in Customer Service. Retrieved 15 October 2014. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. Jump up^ Davenport, T.H., Harris, J.G., Kohli, A.K. (2001), “How do they know their customers so well?”, MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 42 No.2, pp.63-73.
  21. Jump up^ Rebekah Henderson, B2B Insights (2013) How to build a B2B-friendly CRM
  22. Jump up^ Cloud Taxonomy CRM Software as a Service
  23. Jump up^ Yang Caidi, (2008). Discuss and analyze the imorovements of strategy to CRM for SMEs, edition 22
  24. Jump up^ DestinationCRM.com (2009) Who Owns the Social Customer?
  25. Jump up^ Lester, Aaron (2013-04-23). “Seeking treasure from social media tracking? Follow the customer”. SearchBusinessAnalytics. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
  26. Jump up^ It’s all about the Customer, Stupid – The Importance of Customer Centric Partners
  27. ^ Jump up to:a b c Evans, M., Jamal, A. and Foxall, G. (2006). Consumer behaviour. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  28. Jump up^ Sales and Customer Services–CRM: Services Overview
  29. Jump up^ Customer-centric relationship management system development: A generative knowledge integration perspective
  30. Jump up^ CRM and customer-centric knowledge management: an empirical research
  31. Jump up^ Jim Dickie, CSO Insights (2006) Demystifying CRM Adoption Rates
  32. Jump up^ Joachim, David. “CRM tools improve access, usability.” (cover story). B to B 87, no. 3 (11 March 2002): 1
  33. Jump up^ David Sims, TMC.net (2007) CRM Adoption ‘Biggest Problem’ in 83 Percent of Cases
  34. Jump up^ Hasan, M. R., Rahman, M., And Khan, M. M. (2013). Rural Consumers’ Adoption of CRM in a Developing Country Context. International Journal of Business and Management Invention (IJBMI), 2(9), 121-131. [1]
  35. Jump up^ Nguyen, B. & Mutum, D. S. (2012). A review of customer relationship management: successes, advances, pitfalls and futures, Business Process Management Journal, 18 (3). 400-419 [2]
  36. Jump up^ Forbes.com (2013) 2013 CRM Market Share Update: 40% Of CRM Systems Sold Are SaaS-Based
  37. Jump up^ “Gartner Says Worldwide Customer Relationship Management Market Grew 23 Percent in 2007” (Press release). Gartner, Inc. 12 September 2008. Retrieved2008-08-15.
  38. Jump up^ “Gartner Says Worldwide CRM Market Grew 12.5 Percent in 2008” (Press release). Gartner, Inc. 15 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
  39. Jump up^ CRM Trends in Insurance IndustryCRM Trends in Insurance Industry: April, 2010
  40. Jump up^ Put Cloud CRM to WorkPC World: April, 2010
  41. Jump up^ Oracle Buys Cloud-based Customer Service Company RightNow For $1.5 BillionTechcrunch: 24 October 2011
  42. Jump up^ SAP Challenges Oracle With $3.4 Billion SuccessFactors Purchase Bloomberg Businessweek: 7 December 2011
  43. Jump up^ Greenberg, Paul (2009). CRM at the Speed of Light (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 7.
  44. Jump up^ “Top 5 CRM Trends for 2013”. Enterprise Apps Today. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  45. Jump up^ Destinationcrm.com CRM Magazine: May, 2010
  46. Jump up^ [3] The Great Enterprise Balancing Act: Extended Relationship Management (XRM), Doug Laney, META Group publication, 10 December 2001
  47. Jump up^ DeGregor, Dennison (2011). Customer-Transparent Enterprise: Beyond 20th Century CRM. Motivational Press.ISBN 1-935723-23-5.

Google Apps

Google Apps for Work

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Google Apps for Work
Google-Apps-For-Work.png
Developer(s)Google Inc.
PlatformGmail, Calendar, Hangouts, Drive, Docs, Sheets, Slides,Sites and Vault.
TypeOffice suite and Cloud Computing
LicenseTrialware (Retail, volume licensing, SaaS)
WebsiteOfficial website (US)
Official website (UK)

Google Apps for Work (formerly Google Apps for Business) is a suite of cloud computing productivity and collaboration software tools and softwareoffered on a subscription basis by Google.

It includes Google’s popular web applications including Gmail, Google Drive, Google Hangouts, Google Calendar, and Google Docs.[1] While these products are available to consumers free of charge, Google Apps for Work adds business-specific features such as custom email addresses at your domain (@yourcompany.com), at least 30GB of storage for documents and email, and 24/7 phone and email support.[2] As a cloud computing solution, it takes a different approach from off-the-shelf office productivity software by hosting customer information in Google’s network of secure data centers,[3] rather than on traditional in-house servers that are located within companies.[4]

According to Google, more than 5 million organizations around the world use Google Apps, including 60 percent of Fortune 500 companies.[5]

History

  • February 10, 2006 – Google launched a Gmail for Your Domain test at San Jose City College, hosting Gmail accounts with SJCC domain addresses and admin tools for account management.[6]
  • August 28, 2006 – Google launched Google Apps for Your Domain, a set of apps for organizations. Available for free as a beta product, it included Gmail, Google Talk, Google Calendar, and the Google Page Creator which was replaced with Google Sites. Dave Girouard, then Google’s vice president and general manager for enterprise, outlined its benefits for business customers: “Organizations can let Google be the experts in delivering high quality email, messaging, and other web-based services while they focus on the needs of their users and their day-to-day business.”[7]
  • October 10, 2006 – An edition for schools, known as Google Apps for Education, was announced.[8]
  • February 22, 2007 – Google introduced Google Apps Premier Edition, which differed from the free version by offering more storage (10GB per account), APIs for business integration, and a 99.9% uptime service-level agreement. It cost $50 per user account per year. According to Google, early adopters of Google Apps Premier Edition included Procter & Gamble, San Francisco Bay Pediatrics, and Salesforce.com.[9]
  • June 25, 2007 – Google added a number of features to Google Apps, including mail migration, which allows customers to transfer existing email data from an IMAP server.[10] A ZDNet article noted that Google Apps now offered a tool for switching from the popular Exchange Server and Lotus Notes, positioning Google as an alternative to Microsoft and IBM.[11]
  • October 3, 2007 – A month after acquiring Postini, Google announced that the startup’s email security and compliance options had been added to Google Apps Premier Edition. Customers now had the ability to better configure their spam and virus filtering, implement retention policies, restore deleted messages, and give administrators access to all emails.[12]
  • February 26, 2008 – Google introduced Google Sites, a simple new Google Apps tool for creating intranets and team websites.[13]
  • June 9, 2010 – Google launched Google Apps Sync for Microsoft Outlook, a plugin that allows customers to synchronize their email, calendar, and contacts data between Outlook and Google Apps.[14]
  • July 7, 2010 – Google announced that the services included in Google Apps—Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Docs, and Google Talk—were no longer in beta.[15]
  • March 9, 2010 – Google opened the Google Apps Marketplace, an online store for third-party business applications that integrate with Google Apps, to make it easier for users and software to do business in the cloud. Participating vendors included Intuit, Appirio, and Atlassian.[16]
  • July 26, 2010 – Google introduced Google Apps for Government, an edition of Google Apps designed to meet the public sector’s unique policy and security needs. It was also announced that Google Apps had become the first suite of cloud applications to receive Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) certification and accreditation.[17]
  • April 26, 2011 – Nearly five years after the launch of Google Apps, Google announced that organizations with more than 10 users were no longer eligible for the free edition of Google Apps. They would have to sign up for the paid version, now known as Google Apps for Business. A flexible billing plan was also introduced, giving customers the option of paying $5 per user per month with no contractual commitment.[18]
  • March 28, 2012 – Google launched Google Apps Vault, an optional Electronic discovery and archiving service for Google Apps for Business customers.[19]
  • April 24, 2012 – Google introduced Google Drive, a platform for storing and sharing files. Each Google Apps for Business user was given 5GB of Drive storage, with the option to purchase more.[20] Observers noted that Google had now entered the cloud storage market, competing with players like Dropbox and Box.[21]
  • December 6, 2012 – Google announced that the free version of Google Apps would no longer be available to new customers.[22]
  • May 13, 2013 – Google increased the Drive storage quota for Google Apps customers. Google combined the 25GB on Gmail and 5GB on Drive, increasing it to 30GB total per user that can be used across all Apps products including Gmail and Google Drive.[23]
  • March 10, 2014 – Google launched the Google Apps Referral Program, which offers participating individuals a $15 referral bonus for each new Google Apps user they refer.[24]
  • June 25, 2014 – Google announced Drive for Work, a new Google Apps offering featuring unlimited file storage, advanced audit reporting, and new security controls for $10 per user per month.[25]
  • September 2, 2014 – Google Enterprise, the company’s business product division, was officially renamed Google for Work. “We never set out to create a traditional ‘enterprise’ business—we wanted to create a new way of doing work,” explained Eric Schmidt, Google’s executive chairman. “So the time has come for our name to catch up with our ambition.” To reflect this larger change, Google Apps for Business was renamed Google Apps for Work.[26]
  • November 14, 2014 – In the free edition of Google Apps secondary domains are not supported. The free edition of Google Apps only supports domain aliases.[27]

Products

The range of Google Apps for Work products and services comprises Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Drive, Hangouts, Google Docs, Google Sheets, Google Slides, Google Forms, Google Sites, Google+, and Google Apps Vault. With the exception of Google Apps Vault,[28] all are included in the basic plan, which costs $5 per user per month or $50 per user per year. A premium package, Drive for Work, includes Google Apps Vault plus unlimited storage is available for $10 per user per month.[29]

Gmail

Launched in a limited rollout on April 1, 2004, Gmail is now the most popular web email service in the world.[30] It became open to all consumers in 2007. As of June 2012, 425 million people use Gmail, according to Google.[31]

The free consumer version of Gmail is supported by text ads related to the contents of people’s email messages.[32] Popular features include 15GB of free storage, threaded conversations, robust search capabilities, and an app-like interface.[33]

While similar to the free version, Gmail in Google Apps for Work adds a number of features designed for business users.[34]

These include:

  • Custom email including the customer’s domain name (@yourcompany.com)
  • 99.9% guaranteed uptime with zero scheduled downtime for maintenance[35]
  • Either 30GB or unlimited storage shared with Google Drive, depending on the plan
  • No advertising
  • 24/7 customer support
  • Google Apps Sync for Microsoft Outlook[34]

Google Drive

Google’s file storage and synchronization service was released on April 24, 2012,[36] at least six years after rumors about the product first began circulating.[37] Google’s official announcement described Google Drive as “a place where you can create, share, collaborate, and keep all of your stuff.”[36]

With Google Drive, users can upload any type of files to the cloud, share them with others, and access them from any computer, tablet, or smartphone. Users can easily sync files between their computer and the cloud with a desktop application for Mac and PC. This app puts a special folder on their computer and all changes made to files sync across Drive, on the web and across devices. The consumer version of Google Drive includes 15GB of storage shared across Gmail, Drive and Google+ Photos.[38]

When offered as part of Google Apps for Work, Google Drive comes with additional features designed for business use. These include:

  • Either 30GB or unlimited storage shared with Gmail, depending on the plan
  • 24/7 customer support
  • Sharing controls that keep files private until customers decide to share them
  • Advanced audit and reporting[39]

Google Docs, Sheets, Slides, and Forms

Google Apps includes online editors for creating text documents or document file format, spreadsheets, presentations, and surveys.[40] The set of tools was first released on October 11, 2006, as Google Docs & Spreadsheets.[41]

Google Docs, Sheets, Slides, and Forms work within any web browser or on any web-enabled mobile devices. Documents, spreadsheets, presentations, and surveys can be shared, commented on, and co-edited in real time. Additional features include unlimited revision history that keep all changes safe in one place and offline access that lets people work on their documents without internet connection.[42]

On June 25, 2014, Google introduced native editing for Microsoft Office files in Google Docs, Sheets, and Slides.[43] Echoing similar remarks in other articles, a Mashable journalist wrote, “Google is clearly positioning its apps as a more affordable solution for companies that need to occasionally edit Office files.”[44]

Google Sites

Introduced on February 28, 2008, Google Sites allows people to create and edit web pages even if they are not familiar with HTML or web design.[45] People can build sites from scratch or with templates, upload content such as photos and videos,[45] and control access permissions by choosing who can view and edit each page.[46]

Google Sites launched as part of the paid Google Apps suite but soon became available to consumers as well. Business customers use Google Sites to build project sites, company intranets, and public-facing sites.[47]

Google Calendar

Designed to integrate with Gmail, Google’s online calendar service launched to consumers on April 13, 2006. It uses the iCal standard to work with other calendar applications.[48]

Google’s online calendar is an integrated online, shareable calendar designed for teams.[49] Businesses can create specific team calendars and share them company wide.[50] Calendars can be delegated to another person to manage a specific calendar and events.[51] People can also use Google Calendar to see if meeting rooms or shared resources are free, and add them to events.

Helpful features of Google Calendar include:

  • Share calendars with teammates and others to check availability
  • Overlay teammates’ calendars into a single view to find a time when everyone is available
  • Use the mobile app or synchronize with the built-in calendar on mobile devices
  • Publishing of calendars to the web, and integration into Google Sites
  • Simple migration from Exchange, Outlook, or iCal, or from .ics and .csv files
  • Book shared rooms and resources[50]

Google Hangouts

On May 15, 2013, Google announced that a new text, voice, and video chat tool would replace its Google Talk, Google Voice, and Google+ Hangouts services.[52] Known as Google Hangouts, it allows up to 10 people for the consumer version and up to 15 people for the work version to join conversations from their computer or mobile device.[53] Participants can share their screens, and view and work on things together.[54] The Hangouts On Air service lets people stream live broadcasts to Google+, YouTube, and their websites.[55]

The version of Hangouts included with Google Apps for Work[56] supports up to 15 participants, and administrators can choose to restrict Hangouts to only people on the same domain, limiting the access of external participants.[57]

The Hangouts app keeps messages stored online in Google’s cloud, and offers an option to toggle off history if people want to go off the record.[58] And the Google+ integration saves every photo people share with each other in a private, shared album on Google+.[58]

On July 30, 2014, Google announced that all Google Apps customers will have access to Hangouts, including those without a Google+ profile.[59] Google also partnered to integrate with other video chat providers – likeBlue Jeans Network and Intercall.[60] Google also announced that Hangouts is covered under the same Terms of Service as other Google Apps for Work products like Gmail and Drive. Apps for Work customers also get 24/7 phone support for Hangouts, 99.9% guaranteed uptime, and ISO27001 and SOC 2 certification.[61]

On December 19, 2014, Google announced via Google+ post that they brought back one of the most requested features for Hangouts in Gmail. The Apps admins have control to keep status messages to be only visible internally.[62]

Google+

Google’s social networking service, Google+, launched on June 28, 2011, in an invitation-only field trial.[63] Observers declared it Google’s latest attempt to challenge social giant Facebook.[64] While Google+ has since overtaken Twitter to become the world’s second largest social network after Facebook,[65] it has been criticized for disappointing users and failing to generate referral traffic.[66]

On October 27, 2011, Google announced that Google+ was available for people who use Google Apps at college, work and home.[67]

On August 29, 2012, Google announced that after receiving feedback from business customers that participated in a pilot program, they tailored Google+ features for organizations. These features include private sharing within organizations and administrative controls that restrict the visibility of profiles and posts.[68]

On November 5, 2013, Google added an extra layer of security for restricted communities that could only be joined by people in an organization. Administrators have the option to set restricted communities by default and choose when people outside of the organization can join.[69]

Google+ as a business network received mixed reviews from having features that help small businesses get noticed online[70] to confusing people over its branding[71] to being an important player in social marketing strategy for businesses.[72] Many online articles emphasize that having a Google+ presence helps businesses with their Google search result rankings since Google+ posts and shares are immediately indexed by Google.[73]

Google Apps Vault

Google Apps Vault, an archiving and eDiscovery service exclusively available to Google Apps customers, was announced on March 28, 2012.[74] Vault allows customers to find and preserve email messages that may be relevant to litigation. It also helps them manage business data for continuity, compliance, and regulatory purposes.[75] As of June 25, 2014, Vault customers can also search, preview, and export Google Drive files.[76]

Google Apps Vault is included as part of Drive for Work with unlimited storage, available for $10 per user per month.[77]

Pricing

When prospective customers sign up for Google Apps for Work, they get a free 30-day trial for up to 10 users.[78] After the trial, they may choose either an annual plan at $50 per user per year or a flexible plan at $5 per user per month or $60/year. Both plans are billed on a monthly basis.[29]

With the flexible plan, customers have the option of adding unlimited storage and Google Apps Vault for a total monthly cost of $10 per user. For organizations with fewer than five users, storage is capped to 1TB per user with this option.[29]

Security

Google has stated that they do not own the customer’s data. The data is stored in Google’s data centers, and access is limited to select employees and personnel.[79] They do not share data with others, will only keep data as long as required by the customer, and customers can take the data if they migrate off Google Apps.[80]

Google Apps offers enterprise-grade security and compliance, including a SSAE 16 / ISAE 3402 Type II, SOC 2-audit, ISO 27001 certification, adherence to the Safe Harbor Privacy Principles, and can support industry-specific requirements like Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).[81] Google claims that spam blockers are integrated into Google Apps with built-in virus checking and checking of documents before allowing users to download any message.[79]

Google ensures that all files uploaded to Google Drive are encrypted, and that every email people send or receives are encrypted while moving internally between data centers.[82] In a blog post, Google for Work stated that they offer strong contractual commitments to protect customer’s information and does not show advertisements or scan customer information for advertising.[82]

Usage

Google Apps claims that over 5M businesses are using their tools, either the free or the paid version.[83] According to Google for Work President Amit Singh, 60% of Fortune 500 companies are using Google for Work services.[84] Customers range across industries around the globe including Uber,[85] AllSaints,[86] Buzzfeed,[87] Design Within Reach,[88] Virgin, PwC[89] and more. Many of the customers using Apps are featured on the Apps customer page.[90]

Google Resellers and Referrers

Google has an ecosystem of resellers that help prospects get up and running on Apps. The Partner directory helps people find partners. On March 10, 2014, Google launched a referral program, that gives referrers $15 for every person who signs up.[91] This program initially debuted for anyone based in the US and Canada. The fine print of the referral program shows that people can refer an unlimited number of customers, but they’re rewarded for each referral customer’s first 100 users.[92]

On December 4, 2014, Google introduced the Google for Work and Education Partner Program which helps partners sell, service and innovate across Google for Work and Education suite of products and platforms.[93]

Google Apps Marketplace

The Google Apps Marketplace launched in 2010 is an online store with business-oriented cloud applications that augment Google Apps functionality.[16] The Marketplace lets administrators browse for, purchase, and deploy integrated business-oriented cloud applications. It is available for Google Apps, Google Apps for Work, and Google Apps for Education.[94]

Developers can also develop apps on the Marketplace, and sell apps and services in the Marketplace.[94] On March 6, 2014, Google shared that Google Apps customers have added over 200M installs from the marketplace since the launch of the Marketplace in 2010.

On September 17, 2014, Google released a blog post that employees can install third-party apps from the Marketplace without involving administrators.[95]

Online Reviews

Google Apps has received many positive reviews online with an average of 4-5 stars on a 5 star scale.[96] Reviews praise Google Apps for its competitive pricing, all-inclusive suite offering, easy setup, and working well across devices.[97] Some negative reviews point out that Google Apps, Google Presentations and Google Documents lack the same level of features that provide professional-looking documents made in Powerpoint and Microsoft Word.[97]

Competitive Section

The key competitor to the Google Apps suite is Microsoft Office 365—Microsoft’s cloud-based offering for businesses that includes similar products. Online reviewers vary as to which is the better offering. Reviews note that Google Apps and Microsoft 365 are similar in ratings but very different in features.

The key differences are in the pricing plans, storage space and number of features. Microsoft 365 tends to have a greater number of features than Google Apps, but many of them often go unused.[98] Google does not release revenue or user figures, making it hard for reviewers to compare Google Apps success to that of Microsoft Office.[99] As of October 2014, Microsoft has 7M customers for the Office 365 product and grew by 25% in the last quarter.[100] Microsoft also announced that it is giving away unlimited storage to customers who buy the cloud version of Microsoft Office 365.[100]

There are currently no startups competing with Google Apps suite because the cost to compete on one product, like email, is too high and the revenue opportunity is hard.[100]

With Google Apps’ new SKU, Apps with Unlimited Storage and Vault, Google Apps has attracted new competitors – Box, Dropbox and OneDrive.[101]

Related Products

Google Apps for Work is part of many other products within Google’s products for work.[26] These include Google Cloud Platform, Google Search for Work, Google Maps for Work, Google Chrome for Work.[102]

See also

References

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SEO

Search engine optimization

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine‘s unpaid results – often referred to as “natural,” “organic,” or “earned” results. In general, the earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page), and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine’s users. SEO may target different kinds of search, including image search, local search, video search, academic search,[1] news search and industry-specific vertical search engines.

As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, what people search for, the actual search terms or keywords typed into search engines and which search engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content, HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks, or inbound links, is another SEO tactic.

The plural of the abbreviation SEO can also refer to “search engine optimizers,” those who provide SEO services.

History

Webmasters and content providers began optimizing sites for search engines in the mid-1990s, as the first search engines were cataloging the early Web. Initially, all webmasters needed to do was to submit the address of a page, or URL, to the various engines which would send a “spider” to “crawl” that page, extract links to other pages from it, and return information found on the page to be indexed.[2] The process involves a search engine spider downloading a page and storing it on the search engine’s own server, where a second program, known as an indexer, extracts various information about the page, such as the words it contains and where these are located, as well as any weight for specific words, and all links the page contains, which are then placed into a scheduler for crawling at a later date.

Site owners started to recognize the value of having their sites highly ranked and visible in search engine results, creating an opportunity for both white hat and black hat SEO practitioners. According to industry analyst Danny Sullivan, the phrase “search engine optimization” probably came into use in 1997. Sullivan credits Bruce Clay as being one of the first people to popularize the term.[3] On May 2, 2007,[4] Jason Gambert attempted to trademark the term SEO by convincing the Trademark Office in Arizona[5] that SEO is a “process” involving manipulation of keywords, and not a “marketing service.” The reviewing attorney basically bought his incoherent argument that while “SEO” can’t be trademarked when it refers to a generic process of manipulated keywords, it can be a service mark for providing “marketing services…in the field of computers.”

Early versions of search algorithms relied on webmaster-provided information such as the keyword meta tag, or index files in engines like ALIWEB. Meta tags provide a guide to each page’s content. Using meta data to index pages was found to be less than reliable, however, because the webmaster’s choice of keywords in the meta tag could potentially be an inaccurate representation of the site’s actual content. Inaccurate, incomplete, and inconsistent data in meta tags could and did cause pages to rank for irrelevant searches.[6] Web content providers also manipulated a number of attributes within the HTML source of a page in an attempt to rank well in search engines.[7]

By relying so much on factors such as keyword density which were exclusively within a webmaster’s control, early search engines suffered from abuse and ranking manipulation. To provide better results to their users, search engines had to adapt to ensure their results pages showed the most relevant search results, rather than unrelated pages stuffed with numerous keywords by unscrupulous webmasters. Since the success and popularity of a search engine is determined by its ability to produce the most relevant results to any given search, poor quality or irrelevant search results could lead users to find other search sources. Search engines responded by developing more complex ranking algorithms, taking into account additional factors that were more difficult for webmasters to manipulate. Graduate students at Stanford University, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, developed “Backrub,” a search engine that relied on a mathematical algorithm to rate the prominence of web pages. The number calculated by the algorithm, PageRank, is a function of the quantity and strength of inbound links.[8]PageRank estimates the likelihood that a given page will be reached by a web user who randomly surfs the web, and follows links from one page to another. In effect, this means that some links are stronger than others, as a higher PageRank page is more likely to be reached by the random surfer.

Page and Brin founded Google in 1998.[9] Google attracted a loyal following among the growing number of Internet users, who liked its simple design.[10] Off-page factors (such as PageRank and hyperlink analysis) were considered as well as on-page factors (such as keyword frequency, meta tags, headings, links and site structure) to enable Google to avoid the kind of manipulation seen in search engines that only considered on-page factors for their rankings. Although PageRank was more difficult to game, webmasters had already developed link building tools and schemes to influence the Inktomi search engine, and these methods proved similarly applicable to gaming PageRank. Many sites focused on exchanging, buying, and selling links, often on a massive scale. Some of these schemes, or link farms, involved the creation of thousands of sites for the sole purpose of link spamming.[11]

By 2004, search engines had incorporated a wide range of undisclosed factors in their ranking algorithms to reduce the impact of link manipulation. In June 2007, The New York Times’ Saul Hansell stated Google ranks sites using more than 200 different signals.[12] The leading search engines, Google, Bing, and Yahoo, do not disclose the algorithms they use to rank pages. Some SEO practitioners have studied different approaches to search engine optimization, and have shared their personal opinions.[13] Patents related to search engines can provide information to better understand search engines.[14]

In 2005, Google began personalizing search results for each user. Depending on their history of previous searches, Google crafted results for logged in users.[15] In 2008, Bruce Clay said that “ranking is dead” because ofpersonalized search. He opined that it would become meaningless to discuss how a website ranked, because its rank would potentially be different for each user and each search.[16]

In 2007, Google announced a campaign against paid links that transfer PageRank.[17] On June 15, 2009, Google disclosed that they had taken measures to mitigate the effects of PageRank sculpting by use of the nofollow attribute on links. Matt Cutts, a well-known software engineer at Google, announced that Google Bot would no longer treat nofollowed links in the same way, in order to prevent SEO service providers from using nofollow for PageRank sculpting.[18] As a result of this change the usage of nofollow leads to evaporation of pagerank. In order to avoid the above, SEO engineers developed alternative techniques that replace nofollowed tags with obfuscated Javascript and thus permit PageRank sculpting. Additionally several solutions have been suggested that include the usage of iframes, Flash and Javascript.[19]

In December 2009, Google announced it would be using the web search history of all its users in order to populate search results.[20]

On June 8, 2010 a new web indexing system called Google Caffeine was announced. Designed to allow users to find news results, forum posts and other content much sooner after publishing than before, Google caffeine was a change to the way Google updated its index in order to make things show up quicker on Google than before. According to Carrie Grimes, the software engineer who announced Caffeine for Google, “Caffeine provides 50 percent fresher results for web searches than our last index…”[21]

Google Instant, real-time-search, was introduced in late 2010 in an attempt to make search results more timely and relevant. Historically site administrators have spent months or even years optimizing a website to increase search rankings. With the growth in popularity of social media sites and blogs the leading engines made changes to their algorithms to allow fresh content to rank quickly within the search results.[22]

In February 2011, Google announced the Panda update, which penalizes websites containing content duplicated from other websites and sources. Historically websites have copied content from one another and benefited in search engine rankings by engaging in this practice, however Google implemented a new system which punishes sites whose content is not unique.[23]

In April 2012, Google launched the Google Penguin update the goal of which was to penalize websites that used manipulative techniques to improve their rankings on the search engine.[24]

In September 2013, Google released the Google Hummingbird update, an algorithm change designed to improve Google’s natural language processing and semantic understanding of web pages.

Relationship with search engines

By 1997, search engine designers recognized that webmasters were making efforts to rank well in their search engines, and that some webmasters were even manipulating their rankings in search results by stuffing pages with excessive or irrelevant keywords. Early search engines, such as Altavista and Infoseek, adjusted their algorithms in an effort to prevent webmasters from manipulating rankings.[25]

In 2005, an annual conference, AIRWeb, Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web was created to bring together practitioners and researchers concerned with search engine optimisation and related topics.[26]

Companies that employ overly aggressive techniques can get their client websites banned from the search results. In 2005, the Wall Street Journal reported on a company, Traffic Power, which allegedly used high-risk techniques and failed to disclose those risks to its clients.[27] Wired magazine reported that the same company sued blogger and SEO Aaron Wall for writing about the ban.[28] Google’s Matt Cutts later confirmed that Google did in fact ban Traffic Power and some of its clients.[29]

Some search engines have also reached out to the SEO industry, and are frequent sponsors and guests at SEO conferences, chats, and seminars. Major search engines provide information and guidelines to help with site optimization.[30][31] Google has a Sitemaps program to help webmasters learn if Google is having any problems indexing their website and also provides data on Google traffic to the website.[32] Bing Webmaster Tools provides a way for webmasters to submit a sitemap and web feeds, allows users to determine the crawl rate, and track the web pages index status.

Methods

Getting indexed

Search engines use complex mathematical algorithms to guess which websites a user seeks. In this diagram, if each bubble represents a web site, programs sometimes calledspiders examine which sites link to which other sites, with arrows representing these links. Websites getting more inbound links, or stronger links, are presumed to be more important and what the user is searching for. In this example, since website B is the recipient of numerous inbound links, it ranks more highly in a web search. And the links “carry through,” such that website C, even though it only has one inbound link, has an inbound link from a highly popular site (B) while site E does not. Note: percentages are rounded.

The leading search engines, such as Google, Bing and Yahoo!, use crawlers to find pages for their algorithmic search results. Pages that are linked from other search engine indexed pages do not need to be submitted because they are found automatically. Two major directories, the Yahoo Directory and DMOZ both require manual submission and human editorial review.[33] Google offers Google Webmaster Tools, for which an XML Sitemap feed can be created and submitted for free to ensure that all pages are found, especially pages that are not discoverable by automatically following links.[34] Yahoo! formerly operated a paid submission service that guaranteed crawling for a cost per click;[35] this was discontinued in 2009.[36]

Search engine crawlers may look at a number of different factors when crawling a site. Not every page is indexed by the search engines. Distance of pages from the root directory of a site may also be a factor in whether or not pages get crawled.[37]

Preventing crawling

To avoid undesirable content in the search indexes, webmasters can instruct spiders not to crawl certain files or directories through the standard robots.txt file in the root directory of the domain. Additionally, a page can be explicitly excluded from a search engine’s database by using a meta tag specific to robots. When a search engine visits a site, the robots.txt located in the root directory is the first file crawled. The robots.txt file is then parsed, and will instruct the robot as to which pages are not to be crawled. As a search engine crawler may keep a cached copy of this file, it may on occasion crawl pages a webmaster does not wish crawled. Pages typically prevented from being crawled include login specific pages such as shopping carts and user-specific content such as search results from internal searches. In March 2007, Google warned webmasters that they should prevent indexing of internal search results because those pages are considered search spam.[38]

Increasing prominence

A variety of methods can increase the prominence of a webpage within the search results. Cross linking between pages of the same website to provide more links to important pages may improve its visibility.[39] Writing content that includes frequently searched keyword phrase, so as to be relevant to a wide variety of search queries will tend to increase traffic.[39] Updating content so as to keep search engines crawling back frequently can give additional weight to a site. Adding relevant keywords to a web page’s meta data, including the title tag and meta description, will tend to improve the relevancy of a site’s search listings, thus increasing traffic. URL normalization of web pages accessible via multiple urls, using the canonical link element[40] or via 301 redirects can help make sure links to different versions of the url all count towards the page’s link popularity score.

White hat versus black hat techniques

SEO techniques can be classified into two broad categories: techniques that search engines recommend as part of good design, and those techniques of which search engines do not approve. The search engines attempt to minimize the effect of the latter, among them spamdexing. Industry commentators have classified these methods, and the practitioners who employ them, as either white hat SEO, or black hat SEO.[41] White hats tend to produce results that last a long time, whereas black hats anticipate that their sites may eventually be banned either temporarily or permanently once the search engines discover what they are doing.[42]

An SEO technique is considered white hat if it conforms to the search engines’ guidelines and involves no deception. As the search engine guidelines[30][31][43] are not written as a series of rules or commandments, this is an important distinction to note. White hat SEO is not just about following guidelines, but is about ensuring that the content a search engine indexes and subsequently ranks is the same content a user will see. White hat advice is generally summed up as creating content for users, not for search engines, and then making that content easily accessible to the spiders, rather than attempting to trick the algorithm from its intended purpose. White hat SEO is in many ways similar to web development that promotes accessibility,[44] although the two are not identical.

Black hat SEO attempts to improve rankings in ways that are disapproved of by the search engines, or involve deception. One black hat technique uses text that is hidden, either as text colored similar to the background, in an invisible div, or positioned off screen. Another method gives a different page depending on whether the page is being requested by a human visitor or a search engine, a technique known as cloaking.

Another category sometimes used is grey hat SEO. This is in between black hat and white hat approaches where the methods employed avoid the site being penalised however do not act in producing the best content for users, rather entirely focused on improving search engine rankings.

Search engines may penalize sites they discover using black hat methods, either by reducing their rankings or eliminating their listings from their databases altogether. Such penalties can be applied either automatically by the search engines’ algorithms, or by a manual site review. One example was the February 2006 Google removal of both BMW Germany and Ricoh Germany for use of deceptive practices.[45] Both companies, however, quickly apologized, fixed the offending pages, and were restored to Google’s list.[46]

As a marketing strategy

SEO is not an appropriate strategy for every website, and other Internet marketing strategies can be more effective like paid advertising through pay per click (PPC) campaigns, depending on the site operator’s goals.[47] A successful Internet marketing campaign may also depend upon building high quality web pages to engage and persuade, setting up analytics programs to enable site owners to measure results, and improving a site’sconversion rate.[48]

SEO may generate an adequate return on investment. However, search engines are not paid for organic search traffic, their algorithms change, and there are no guarantees of continued referrals. Due to this lack of guarantees and certainty, a business that relies heavily on search engine traffic can suffer major losses if the search engines stop sending visitors.[49] Search engines can change their algorithms, impacting a website’s placement, possibly resulting in a serious loss of traffic. According to Google’s CEO, Eric Schmidt, in 2010, Google made over 500 algorithm changes – almost 1.5 per day.[50] It is considered wise business practice for website operators to liberate themselves from dependence on search engine traffic.[51]

International markets

Optimization techniques are highly tuned to the dominant search engines in the target market. The search engines’ market shares vary from market to market, as does competition. In 2003, Danny Sullivan stated that Google represented about 75% of all searches.[52] In markets outside the United States, Google’s share is often larger, and Google remains the dominant search engine worldwide as of 2007.[53] As of 2006, Google had an 85–90% market share in Germany.[54] While there were hundreds of SEO firms in the US at that time, there were only about five in Germany.[54] As of June 2008, the marketshare of Google in the UK was close to 90% according to Hitwise.[55] That market share is achieved in a number of countries.

As of 2009, there are only a few large markets where Google is not the leading search engine. In most cases, when Google is not leading in a given market, it is lagging behind a local player. The most notable example markets are China, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the Czech Republic where respectively Baidu, Yahoo! Japan, Naver, Yandex and Seznam are market leaders.

Successful search optimization for international markets may require professional translation of web pages, registration of a domain name with a top level domain in the target market, and web hosting that provides a localIP address. Otherwise, the fundamental elements of search optimization are essentially the same, regardless of language.[54]

Legal precedents

On October 17, 2002, SearchKing filed suit in the United States District Court, Western District of Oklahoma, against the search engine Google. SearchKing’s claim was that Google’s tactics to prevent spamdexingconstituted a tortious interference with contractual relations. On May 27, 2003, the court granted Google’s motion to dismiss the complaint because SearchKing “failed to state a claim upon which relief may be granted.”[56][57]

In March 2006, KinderStart filed a lawsuit against Google over search engine rankings. Kinderstart’s website was removed from Google’s index prior to the lawsuit and the amount of traffic to the site dropped by 70%. On March 16, 2007 the United States District Court for the Northern District of California (San Jose Division) dismissed KinderStart’s complaint without leave to amend, and partially granted Google’s motion for Rule 11sanctions against KinderStart’s attorney, requiring him to pay part of Google’s legal expenses.[58][59]

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Beel, Jöran and Gipp, Bela and Wilde, Erik (2010). “Academic Search Engine Optimization (ASEO): Optimizing Scholarly Literature for Google Scholar and Co.” (PDF). Journal of Scholarly Publishing. pp. 176–190. Retrieved April 18, 2010.
  2. Jump up^ Brian Pinkerton. “Finding What People Want: Experiences with the WebCrawler”(PDF). The Second International WWW Conference Chicago, USA, October 17–20, 1994. Retrieved May 7, 2007.
  3. Jump up^ Danny Sullivan (June 14, 2004). “Who Invented the Term “Search Engine Optimization”?”. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 14, 2007.See Google groups thread.
  4. Jump up^ “Trademark/Service Mark Application, Principal Register”. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  5. Jump up^ “Trade Name Certification”. State of Arizona.
  6. Jump up^ Cory Doctorow (August 26, 2001). “Metacrap: Putting the torch to seven straw-men of the meta-utopia”. e-LearningGuru. Archived from the original on April 9, 2007. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  7. Jump up^ Pringle, G., Allison, L., and Dowe, D. (April 1998). “What is a tall poppy among web pages?”. Proc. 7th Int. World Wide Web Conference. Retrieved May 8,2007.
  8. Jump up^ Brin, Sergey and Page, Larry (1998). “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine”. Proceedings of the seventh international conference on World Wide Web. pp. 107–117. RetrievedMay 8, 2007.
  9. Jump up^ “Google’s co-founders may not have the name recognition of say, Bill Gates, but give them time: Google hasn’t been around nearly as long as Microsoft.”. 2008-10-15.
  10. Jump up^ Thompson, Bill (December 19, 2003). “Is Google good for you?”. BBC News. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
  11. Jump up^ Zoltan Gyongyi and Hector Garcia-Molina (2005). “Link Spam Alliances”(PDF). Proceedings of the 31st VLDB Conference, Trondheim, Norway. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  12. Jump up^ Hansell, Saul (June 3, 2007). “Google Keeps Tweaking Its Search Engine”. New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  13. Jump up^ Danny Sullivan (September 29, 2005). “Rundown On Search Ranking Factors”.Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  14. Jump up^ Christine Churchill (November 23, 2005). “Understanding Search Engine Patents”. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  15. Jump up^ “Google Personalized Search Leaves Google Labs”. searchenginewatch.com. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
  16. Jump up^ “Will Personal Search Turn SEO On Its Ear? | WebProNews”. www.webpronews.com. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
  17. Jump up^ “8 Things We Learned About Google PageRank”. www.searchenginejournal.com. Retrieved August 17,2009.
  18. Jump up^ “PageRank sculpting”. Matt Cutts. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
  19. Jump up^ “Google Loses “Backwards Compatibility” On Paid Link Blocking & PageRank Sculpting”. searchengineland.com. Retrieved August 17, 2009.
  20. Jump up^ “Personalized Search for everyone”. Google. Retrieved December 14, 2009.
  21. Jump up^ “Our new search index: Caffeine”. Google: Official Blog. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  22. Jump up^ “Relevance Meets Real Time Web”. Google Blog.
  23. Jump up^ “Google Search Quality Updates”. Google Blog.
  24. Jump up^ “What You Need to Know About Google’s Penguin Update”. Inc.com.
  25. Jump up^ Laurie J. Flynn (November 11, 1996). “Desperately Seeking Surfers”. New York Times. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  26. Jump up^ “AIRWeb”. Adversarial Information Retrieval on the Web, annual conference. Retrieved Oct 4, 2012.
  27. Jump up^ David Kesmodel (September 22, 2005). “Sites Get Dropped by Search Engines After Trying to ‘Optimize’ Rankings”. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
  28. Jump up^ Adam L. Penenberg (September 8, 2005). “Legal Showdown in Search Fracas”.Wired Magazine. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  29. Jump up^ Matt Cutts (February 2, 2006). “Confirming a penalty”. mattcutts.com/blog. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  30. ^ Jump up to:a b “Google’s Guidelines on Site Design”. google.com. Retrieved April 18, 2007.
  31. ^ Jump up to:a b “Bing Webmaster Guidelines”. bing.com. Retrieved September 11, 2014.
  32. Jump up^ “Sitemaps”. google.com. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  33. Jump up^ “Submitting To Directories: Yahoo & The Open Directory”. Search Engine Watch. March 12, 2007. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  34. Jump up^ “What is a Sitemap file and why should I have one?”. google.com. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
  35. Jump up^ “Submitting To Search Crawlers: Google, Yahoo, Ask & Microsoft’s Live Search”. Search Engine Watch. March 12, 2007. RetrievedMay 15, 2007.
  36. Jump up^ “Yahoo Search Submit – Closed in Q4 of 2009”. rickramos.com. Retrieved 2014-01-20.
  37. Jump up^ Cho, J., Garcia-Molina, H. (1998). “Efficient crawling through URL ordering”. Proceedings of the seventh conference on World Wide Web, Brisbane, Australia. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  38. Jump up^ “Newspapers Amok! New York Times Spamming Google? LA Times Hijacking Cars.com?”.Search Engine Land. May 8, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  39. ^ Jump up to:a b “The Most Important SEO Strategy”. clickz.com. ClickZ. RetrievedApril 18, 2010.
  40. Jump up^ “Bing – Partnering to help solve duplicate content issues – Webmaster Blog – Bing Community”. www.bing.com. Retrieved October 30, 2009.
  41. Jump up^ Andrew Goodman. “Search Engine Showdown: Black hats vs. White hats at SES”. SearchEngineWatch. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  42. Jump up^ Jill Whalen (November 16, 2004). “Black Hat/White Hat Search Engine Optimization”. searchengineguide.com. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  43. Jump up^ “What’s an SEO? Does Google recommend working with companies that offer to make my site Google-friendly?”. google.com. RetrievedApril 18, 2007.
  44. Jump up^ Andy Hagans (November 8, 2005). “High Accessibility Is Effective Search Engine Optimization”. A List Apart. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  45. Jump up^ Matt Cutts (February 4, 2006). “Ramping up on international webspam”. mattcutts.com/blog. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  46. Jump up^ Matt Cutts (February 7, 2006). “Recent reinclusions”. mattcutts.com/blog. Retrieved May 9, 2007.
  47. Jump up^ “What SEO Isn’t”. blog.v7n.com. June 24, 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
  48. Jump up^ Melissa Burdon (March 13, 2007). “The Battle Between Search Engine Optimization and Conversion: Who Wins?”. Grok.com. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  49. Jump up^ Andy Greenberg (April 30, 2007). “Condemned To Google Hell”. Forbes. Archived from the original on May 2, 2007. RetrievedMay 9, 2007.
  50. Jump up^ Matt McGee (September 21, 2011). “Schmidt’s testimony reveals how Google tests algorithm changes”.
  51. Jump up^ Jakob Nielsen (January 9, 2006). “Search Engines as Leeches on the Web”. useit.com. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
  52. Jump up^ Graham, Jefferson (August 26, 2003). “The search engine that could”. USA Today. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  53. Jump up^ Greg Jarboe (February 22, 2007). “Stats Show Google Dominates the International Search Landscape”. Search Engine Watch. Retrieved May 15, 2007.
  54. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mike Grehan (April 3, 2006). “Search Engine Optimizing for Europe”. Click. Retrieved May 14, 2007.
  55. Jump up^ Jack Schofield (June 10, 2008). “Google UK closes in on 90% market share”. London: Guardian. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
  56. Jump up^ “Search King, Inc. v. Google Technology, Inc., CIV-02-1457-M” (PDF). docstoc.com. May 27, 2003. Retrieved May 23, 2008.
  57. Jump up^ Stefanie Olsen (May 30, 2003). “Judge dismisses suit against Google”. CNET. RetrievedMay 10, 2007.
  58. Jump up^ “Technology & Marketing Law Blog: KinderStart v. Google Dismissed—With Sanctions Against KinderStart’s Counsel”. blog.ericgoldman.org. Retrieved June 23, 2008.
  59. Jump up^ “Technology & Marketing Law Blog: Google Sued Over Rankings—KinderStart.com v. Google”. blog.ericgoldman.org. Retrieved June 23, 2008.

Google Analytics

Google Analytics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Google Analytics
Google Analytics logo
Web addresswww.google.com/analytics
SloganTurning data insights into action
Commercial?Yes
Type of site
web analytics
RegistrationRequired
OwnerGoogle
LaunchedNovember 2005
Current statusActive

Google Analytics is a freemium web analytics service offered by Google that tracks and reports website traffic.[1] Google launched the service in November 2005 after acquiring Urchin.[2] Google Analytics is now the most widely used web analytics service on the Internet.[3]

History

Google acquired Urchin Software Corp. in April 2005.[2] Google’s service was developed from Urchin on Demand. The system also brings ideas from Adaptive Path, whose product, Measure Map, was acquired and used in the redesign of Google Analytics in 2006.[4] Google continued to sell the standalone, installable Urchin WebAnalytics Software through a network of value-added resellers until discontinuation on March 28, 2012.[5][6]

The Google-branded version was rolled out in November 2005 to anyone who wished to sign up. However due to extremely high demand for the service, new sign-ups were suspended only a week later. As capacity was added to the system, Google began using a lottery-type invitation-code model. Prior to August 2006 Google was sending out batches of invitation codes as server availability permitted; since mid-August 2006 the service has been fully available to all users – whether they use Google for advertising or not.

The latest version of Google Analytics tracking code is known as the asynchronous tracking code,[7] which Google claims, is significantly more sensitive and accurate, and is able to track even very short activities on the website. The previous version delayed page loading and so, for performance reasons, it was generally placed just before the </body> body close HTML tag. The new code can be placed between the <head>...</head>HTML head tags because, once triggered, it runs in parallel with page loading.

In April 2011, Google announced the availability of a new version of Google Analytics, featuring multiple dashboards, more options of custom reports and a new interface design.[8] This version was later updated with some other features such as real-time analytics and goal flow charts.[9][10]

Features

Integrated with AdWords, users can now review online campaigns by tracking landing page quality and conversions (goals). Goals might include sales, lead generation, viewing a specific page, or downloading a particular file.

Google Analytics’ approach is to show high-level, dashboard-type data for the casual user, and more in-depth data further into the report set. Google Analytics analysis can identify poorly performing pages with techniques such as funnel visualization, where visitors came from (referrers), how long they stayed and their geographical position. It also provides more advanced features, including custom visitor segmentation.

Google Analytics e-commerce reporting can track sales activity and performance. The e-commerce reports shows a site’s transactions, revenue, and many other commerce-related metrics.

On September 29, 2011, Google Analytics launched Real Time analytics.[11]

A user can have 50 site profiles. Each profile generally corresponds to one website. It is limited to sites which have a traffic of fewer than 5 million pageviews per month (roughly 2 pageviews per second), unless the site is linked to an AdWords campaign.[12]

Google Analytics includes Google Website Optimizer, rebranded as Google Analytics Content Experiments.[13][14]

Google Analytics Cohort analysis feature helps understand the behavior of component groups of users apart from your user population. It is very much beneficial to marketers and analysts for successful implementation of Marketing Strategy

Technology

Google Analytics is implemented with “page tags“. A page tag, in this case called the Google Analytics Tracking Code is a snippet of JavaScript code that the website owner adds to every page of the website. The tracking code runs in the client browser when the client browses the page (if JavaScript is enabled in the browser) and collects visitor data and sends it to a Google data collection server as part of a request for a web beacon.[15]

The tracking code loads a larger JavaScript file from the Google webserver and then sets variables with the user’s account number. The larger file (currently known as ga.js) is typically 18 KB. The file does not usually have to be loaded, however, due to browser caching. Assuming caching is enabled in the browser, it downloads ga.js only once at the start of the visit. Furthermore, as all websites that implement Google Analytics with the ga.js code use the same master file from Google, a browser that has previously visited any other website running Google Analytics will already have the file cached on their machine.

In addition to transmitting information to a Google server, the tracking code sets first party cookies (If cookies are enabled in the browser) on each visitor’s computer. These cookies store anonymous information such as whether the visitor has been to the site before (new or returning visitor), the timestamp of the current visit, and the referrer site or campaign that directed the visitor to the page (e.g., search engine, keywords, banner, or email).

If the visitor arrived at the site by clicking on a link tagged with Urchin Traffic Monitor (UTM) codes such as:

http://toWebsite.com?utm_source=fromWebsite&utm_medium=bannerAd&utm_campaign=fundraiser2012

the tag values are passed to the database too.[16]

Limitations

In addition, Google Analytics for Mobile Package allows Google Analytics to be applied to mobile websites. The Mobile Package contains server-side tracking codes that use PHP, JavaServer Pages, ASP.NET, or Perl for its server-side language.[17]

However, many ad filtering programs and extensions (such as Firefox’s Adblock and NoScript) can block the Google Analytics Tracking Code. This prevents some traffic and users from being tracked, and leads to holes in the collected data. Also, privacy networks like Tor will mask the user’s actual location and present inaccurate geographical data. Some users do not have JavaScript-enabled/capable browsers or turn this feature off. However, these limitations are considered small—affecting only a small percentage of visits.[18]

The largest potential impact on data accuracy comes from users deleting or blocking Google Analytics cookies.[19] Without cookies being set, Google Analytics cannot collect data. Any individual web user can block or delete cookies resulting in the data loss of those visits for Google Analytics users. Website owners can encourage users not to disable cookies, for example, by making visitors more comfortable using the site through posting a privacy policy.

These limitations affect the majority of web analytics tools which use page tags (usually JavaScript programs) embedded in web pages to collect visitor data, store it in cookies on the visitor’s computer, and transmit it to a remote database by pretending to load a tiny graphic “beacon“.

Another limitation of Google Analytics for large websites is the use of sampling in the generation of many of its reports. To reduce the load on their servers and to provide users with a relatively quick response for their query, Google Analytics limits reports to 500,000 randomly sampled visits at the profile level for its calculations. While margins of error are indicated for the visits metric, margins of error are not provided for any other metrics in the Google Analytics reports. For small segments of data, the margin of error can be very large.[20]

Performance concerns

There have been several online discussions about the impact of Google Analytics on site performance.[21][22][23] However, Google introduced asynchronous JavaScript code in December 2009 to reduce the risk of slowing the loading of pages tagged with the ga.js script.[24][25]

Privacy issues

Due to its ubiquity, Google Analytics raises some privacy concerns. Whenever someone visits a web site that uses Google Analytics, if JavaScript is enabled in the browser, then Google tracks that visit via the user’s IP address in order to determine the user’s approximate geographic location. (To meet German legal requirements, Google Analytics can anonymize the IP address.[26])

Google has also released a browser plugin that turns off data about a page visit being sent to Google.[27][28] Since this plug-in is produced and distributed by Google itself, it has met much discussion and criticism. Furthermore, the realisation of Google scripts tracking user behaviours has spawned the production of multiple, often open-source, browser plug-ins to reject tracking cookies.[29] These plug-ins offer the user a choice, whether to allow Google Analytics (for example) to track his/her activities. However, partially because of new European privacy laws, most modern browsers allow users to reject tracking cookies, though Flash cookiescan be a separate problem again.

It has been anecdotally reported that behind proxy servers and multiple firewalls that errors can occur changing time stamps and registering invalid searches.[30]

Webmasters who seek to mitigate Google Analytics specific privacy issues can employ a number of alternatives having their backends hosted on their own machines. Until its discontinuation, an example of such a product was Urchin WebAnalytics Software from Google itself.

On Jan. 20, 2015, the Associated Press reported in an article titled: “Government health care website quietly sharing personal data” that HealthCare.gov is providing access to enrollees personal data to private companies that specialize in advertising. Google Analytics was mentioned in that article.[31]

Support and training

Google offers free Google Analytics IQ Lessons,[32] Google Analytics certification test,[33] free Help Center[34] FAQ and Google Groups forum[35] for official Google Analytics product support. New product features are announced on the Google Analytics Blog.[36] Enterprise support is provided through Google Analytics Certified Partners.[37]

APIs for third-party application support

The Google Analytics API[38] is used by third parties to build custom applications[39] such as reporting tools. Many such applications exist. One was built to run on iOS (Apple) devices and is featured in Apple’s app store.[40] There are some third party products that also provide Google Analytic based tracking.[41]

Popularity

Google Analytics is the most widely used website statistics service,[3] currently in use on around 55% of the 10,000 most popular websites.[42] Another market share analysis claims that Google Analytics is used at around 49.95% of the top 1,000,000 websites (as currently ranked by Alexa).[43]

Google Analytics is used by 66.2% of the 10,000 most popular websites ordered by popularity, as reported by BuiltWith in August, 2013.[44] In May 2008, Pingdom released a survey stating that 161 (or 32%) out of 500 biggest sites globally according to their Alexa rank were using Google Analytics.[45][46]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ “Get the Power of Google Analytics: Now available in Standard or Premium, whatever your needs are Google Analytics can help.”. Retrieved 2012-04-08.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b “Our history in depth”. Google. Retrieved 2012-07-16.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b “Usage of traffic analysis tools for websites”. W3Techs. Retrieved 2009-12-10.
  4. Jump up^ Official Google Blog: Here comes Measure Map
  5. Jump up^ Muret, Paul (January 20, 2012). “The End of an Era for Urchin Software”. Google Analytics. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
  6. Jump up^ Muret, Paul. “The End of an Era for Urchin Software”. Google Analytics. Retrieved 2012-04-07.
  7. Jump up^ “Asynchronous Tracking Code”.
  8. Jump up^ “The New Google Analytics Available to Everyone”.
  9. Jump up^ “Introducing Flow Visualization: visualizing visitor flow”.
  10. Jump up^ “What’s happening on your site right now?”.
  11. Jump up^ http://analytics.blogspot.com/2011/09/whats-happening-on-your-site-right-now.html
  12. Jump up^ Google Analytics Help: Does Google Analytics have a pageview limit?
  13. Jump up^ “Website Optimizer”. Google. Retrieved 2012-07-20.
  14. Jump up^ Tzemah, Nir. “Helping to Create Better Websites: Introducing Content Experiments”. Google Analytics Blog. Retrieved 2012-06-04.
  15. Jump up^ “Google Developers Tracking Code Overview”.
  16. Jump up^ “Google Analytics: UTM Link Tagging Explained”.
  17. Jump up^ “Google Analytics for Mobile package”.
  18. Jump up^ EU and US JavaScript Disabled Index numbers + Web Analytics data collection impact
  19. Jump up^ “Increasing Accuracy for Online Business Growth”. – a web analytics accuracy whitepaper
  20. Jump up^ “Segmentation Options in Google Analytics”.
  21. Jump up^ Does Google Analytics Slow down page loading?
  22. Jump up^ Google Analytics Code is Slowing Down My Site
  23. Jump up^ Is Google Analytics Slow or Not?
  24. Jump up^ Google Analytics Launches Asynchronous Tracking
  25. Jump up^ Making the Web Faster
  26. Jump up^ “Tracking Code: The _gat Global Object”. Google. January 24, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-27.
  27. Jump up^ Albanesius, Chloe (May 25, 2010). “Opt Out of Google Analytics Data Gathering With New Beta Tool”. PC Magazine.
  28. Jump up^ “Greater choice and transparency for Google Analytics”. Google. May 25, 2010.
  29. Jump up^ “The NoScript Firefox extension provides extra protection for Firefox, Flock, Seamonkey and other mozilla-based browsers”.
  30. Jump up^ Greenberg, Andy (December 11, 2008). “The Virus Filters”. Forbes.
  31. Jump up^ http://bigstory.ap.org/article/31490a20926d4ed3b98ff2d0ed8fc81d/new-privacy-concerns-over-governments-health-care-website
  32. Jump up^ Google Analytics IQ Lessons
  33. Jump up^ Google Analytics certification test
  34. Jump up^ Google Analytics Help Center
  35. Jump up^ Official Google Analytics product forum
  36. Jump up^ Official Google Analytics Blog
  37. Jump up^ Google Analytics Certified Partners
  38. Jump up^ Google Analytics API
  39. Jump up^ Google Analytics Applications
  40. Jump up^ “Analytics by Net Conversion”.
  41. Jump up^ Google Analytics Tracking for API
  42. Jump up^ “Google Biz Chief: Over 10M Websites Now Using Google Analytics”. TechCrunch. Retrieved 2012-04-25.
  43. Jump up^ “Google Analytics Market Share”. MetricMail. Retrieved 2010-08-21.
  44. Jump up^ Google Analytics Usage Statistics
  45. Jump up^ “Google Analytics dominates the top 500 websites”. Pingdom. Retrieved 2012-07-17.
  46. Jump up^ “Image Google Analytics terms”.