Responsive Design

Responsive web design

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Responsive web design (RWD) is an approach to web design aimed at crafting sites to provide an optimal viewing experience—easy reading and navigation with a minimum of resizing, panning, and scrolling—across a wide range of devices (from desktop computer monitors to mobile phones).[1][2][3]

A site designed with RWD[1][4] adapts the layout to the viewing environment by using fluid, proportion-based grids,[5][6] flexible images,[7][8][9] and CSS3 media queries,[3][10][11] an extension of the @media rule, in the following ways:[12]

  • The fluid grid concept calls for page element sizing to be in relative units like percentages, rather than absolute units like pixels or points.[6]
  • Flexible images are also sized in relative units, so as to prevent them from displaying outside their containing element.[7]
  • Media queries allow the page to use different CSS style rules based on characteristics of the device the site is being displayed on, most commonly the width of the browser.

Related concepts

Mobile first, unobtrusive JavaScript, and progressive enhancement

“Mobile first”, unobtrusive JavaScript, and progressive enhancement are related concepts that predate RWD. Browsers of basic mobile phones do not understand JavaScript or media queries, so a recommended practice is to create a basic web site and enhance it for smart phones and PCs, rather than rely on graceful degradation to make a complex, image-heavy site work on mobile phones.[13][14][15][16]

Progressive enhancement based on browser-, device-, or feature-detection

Where a web site must support basic mobile devices that lack JavaScript, browser (“user agent”) detection (also called “browser sniffing“), and mobile device detection[14][17] are two ways of deducing if certain HTML and CSS features are supported (as a basis for progressive enhancement)—however, these methods are not completely reliable unless used in conjunction with a device capabilities database.

For more capable mobile phones and PCs, JavaScript frameworks like Modernizr, jQuery, and jQuery Mobile that can directly test browser support for HTML/CSS features (or identify the device or user agent) are popular.Polyfills can be used to add support for features—e.g. to support media queries (required for RWD), and enhance HTML5 support, on Internet Explorer. Feature detection also might not be completely reliable: some may report that a feature is available, when it is either missing or so poorly implemented that it is effectively nonfunctional.[18][19]

Challenges, and other approaches

Luke Wroblewski has summarized some of the RWD and mobile design challenges, and created a catalog of multi-device layout patterns.[20][21][22] He suggests that, compared with a simple RWD approach, device experience or RESS (responsive web design with server-side components) approaches can provide a user experience that is better optimized for mobile devices.[23][24][25] Server-side “dynamic CSS” implementation of stylesheet languages like Sass or Incentivated’s MML can be part of such an approach by accessing a server based API which handles the device (typically mobile handset) differences in conjunction with a device capabilities database in order to improve usability.[26] RESS is more expensive to develop, requiring more than just client-side logic, and so tends to be reserved for organizations with larger budgets. Google recommends responsive design for smartphone websites over other approaches.[27]

Although many publishers are starting to implement responsive designs, one ongoing challenge for RWD is that some banner advertisements and videos are not fluid.[28] However, search advertising and (banner) display advertising support specific device platform targeting and different advertisement size formats for desktop, smartphone, and basic mobile devices. Different landing page URLs can be used for different platforms,[29] orAjax can be used to display different advertisement variants on a page.[17][21][30] CSS tables permit hybrid fixed+fluid layouts.[31]

There are now many ways of validating and testing RWD designs,[32] ranging from mobile site validators and mobile emulators[33] to simultaneous testing tools like Adobe Edge Inspect.[34] The Firefox browser and the Chrome console offer responsive design viewport resizing tools, as do third parties.[35][36]

History

A site layout example that adapts to browser viewport width was first demonstrated by Cameron Adams in 2004.[37] By 2008, a number of related terms such as “flexible”, “liquid”,[38] “fluid”, and “elastic” were being used to describe layouts. CSS3 media queries were almost ready for prime time in late 2008/early 2009.[39] Ethan Marcotte coined the term responsive web design [40] (RWD)—and defined it to mean fluid grid/ flexible images/ media queries—in a May 2010 article in A List Apart.[1] He described the theory and practice of responsive web design in his brief 2011 book titled Responsive Web Design. Responsive design was listed as #2 in Top Web Design Trends for 2012 by .net magazine[41] after progressive enhancement at #1.

Mashable called 2013 the Year of Responsive Web Design.[42] Many other sources have recommended responsive design as a cost-effective alternative to mobile applications.

Forbes featured a piece, ‘Why You Need To Prioritize Responsive Design Now’ [43] where the importance was made clear that having a mobile version of your website isn’t enough anymore. Jody Resnick, President ofTrighton Interactive stated in his interview with Forbes, “Responsive websites simplify internet marketing and SEO. Instead of having to develop and manage content for multiple websites, businesses with responsive sites can take a unified approach to content management because they have only the one responsive site to manage.

Resnick predicts, “As the internet transforms further into a platform of services and user interfaces that tie those services together, leveraging this technology in the future will allow companies to integrate a plethora of back-end services, such as Facebook, Twitter, Salesforce.com, and Amazon Web Services, and then present the integrated data back out the front-end iad layer on a responsive design so the application looks great on all devices without custom coding needed for each device or screen size.”

Some believe that responsive design will be more prevalent than native apps simply because of the browser compatibility and the cost associated with programming the apps.

See also

References

  1. ^ Jump up to:a b c Marcotte, Ethan (May 25, 2010). “Responsive Web design”. A List Apart.
  2. Jump up^ “Ethan Marcotte’s 20 favourite responsive sites”. .net magazine. October 11, 2011.
  3. ^ Jump up to:a b Gillenwater, Zoe Mickley (Dec 15, 2010). “Examples of flexible layouts with CSS3 media queries”. Stunning CSS3. p. 320.ISBN 978-0-321-722133.
  4. Jump up^ Pettit, Nick (Aug 8, 2012). “Beginner’s Guide to Responsive Web Design”. TeamTreehouse.com blog.
  5. Jump up^ “Core concepts of Responsive Web design”. Sep 8, 2014.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b Marcotte, Ethan (March 3, 2009). “Fluid Grids”. A List Apart.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Marcotte, Ethan (June 7, 2011). “Fluid images”. A List Apart.
  8. Jump up^ Hannemann, Anselm (Sep 7, 2012). “The road to responsive images”. net Magazine.
  9. Jump up^ Jacobs, Denise (April 24, 2012). “50 fantastic tools for responsive web design”. .net Magazine.
  10. Jump up^ Gillenwater, Zoe Mickley (Oct 21, 2011). “Crafting quality media queries”.
  11. Jump up^ “Responsive design—harnessing the power of media queries”. Google Webmaster Central. Apr 30, 2012.
  12. Jump up^ W3C @media rule
  13. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (November 3, 2009). “Mobile First”.
  14. ^ Jump up to:a b Firtman, Maximiliano (July 30, 2010). Programming the Mobile Web. p. 512. ISBN 978-0-596-80778-8.
  15. Jump up^ “Graceful degradation versus progressive enhancement”. February 3, 2009.
  16. Jump up^ Designing with Progressive Enhancement. March 1, 2010. p. 456. ISBN 978-0-321-65888-3.
  17. ^ Jump up to:a b “Server-Side Device Detection: History, Benefits And How-To”. Smashing magazine. September 24, 2012.
  18. Jump up^ “BlackBerry Torch: The HTML5 Developer Scorecard | Blog”. Sencha. 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
  19. Jump up^ “Motorola Xoom: The HTML5 Developer Scorecard | Blog”. Sencha. 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2012-09-11.
  20. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (May 17, 2011). “Mobilism: jQuery Mobile”.
  21. ^ Jump up to:a b Wroblewski, Luke (February 6, 2012). “Rolling Up Our Responsive Sleeves”.
  22. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (March 14, 2012). “Multi-Device Layout Patterns”.
  23. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (February 29, 2012). “Responsive Design … or RESS”.
  24. Jump up^ Wroblewski, Luke (September 12, 2011). “RESS: Responsive Design + Server Side Components”.
  25. Jump up^ Andersen, Anders (May 9, 2012). “Getting Started with RESS”.
  26. Jump up^ “Responsive but not completely mobile optimised | Blog”. Incentivated.
  27. Jump up^ “Building Smartphone-Optimized Websites”. Google.
  28. Jump up^ Snyder, Matthew; Koren, Etai (Apr 30, 2012). “The state of responsive advertising: the publishers’ perspective”. .net Magazine.
  29. Jump up^ Google AdWords Targeting (Device Platform Targeting)
  30. Jump up^ JavaScript and Responsive Web DesignGoogle Developers
  31. Jump up^ Table Layouts in RWD
  32. Jump up^ Young, James (Aug 13, 2012). “Top responsive web design problems… testing”. .net Magazine.
  33. Jump up^ “Best mobile emulators and RWD testing tools”. The Mobile Web Design Blog. Nov 26, 2011.
  34. Jump up^ Rinaldi, Brian (September 26, 2012). “Browser testing… with Adobe Edge Inspect”.
  35. Jump up^ Responsive Design View in Firefox
  36. Jump up^ Viewport resizer
  37. Jump up^ Adams, Cameron (September 21, 2004). “Resolution dependent layout: Varying layout according to browser width”. The Man in Blue.
  38. Jump up^ CSS2 Liquid layout discussion
  39. Jump up^ CSS3 Media Queries Candidate Recommendation
  40. Jump up^ http://outseller.net/2015s-professional-responsive-web-design-offer-businesses/
  41. Jump up^ “15 top web design and development trends for 2012”. .net magazine. January 9, 2012.
  42. Jump up^ Cashmore, Pete (Dec 11, 2012). “Why 2013 Is the Year of Responsive Web Design”.
  43. Jump up^ Gunelius, Susan (March 13, 2013). “Why You Need To Prioritize Responsive Design Now”.

Small Business SEO

“Search marketing has grown in popularity as online search continues to evolve from a novelty to a standard feature in our everyday lives. Almost every business in the country, big or small and regardless of industry, has some kind of web presence, and everybody is competing for only a handful of positions at the top of search-engine results pages (SERPs).

Since larger companies — mega-corporations such as Walmart or Home Depot — already have millions of inbound links, decades of content, and a recurring base of online visitors, it’s no wonder why they generally appear in the top ranking positions when people search for commercial products. Regardless of what industry you’re in, you’ll always have at least one competitor who has been around longer and has tried harder than you have (allocated more budget and resources) to building their visibility on the web and in search engines.

So how can you, a small business with limited experience and resources, compete with that level of online domination?

Thankfully, search-engine optimization (SEO) is no longer about sheer volume. It’s not about who’s been on the web the longest, who has the most inbound links, or even who has the biggest library of great content. It’s about which page or website is the most relevant for the searcher. Knowing that, there are several strategies you can implement that can give you the edge over the bigger, badder competition.

1. Specialize in a niche.

One of the best things you can do as a small business is give yourself a niche focus. Instinctively, you might think that the better option for search visibility is to cover as many areas of expertise as possible. For example, if you work in heating, cooling, plumbing, roofing, construction and a dozen other home improvement topics, you’ll be able to appear in search engines for queries related to any of those keywords.

However, if you’re trying to take down your biggest competitors, it’s better to take more of a niche focus. Having several areas of specialization gives you relevance for a wide range of keywords, but your relevance for each of them is somewhat low. If you pour all your effort into one or a small handful of keywords, you’ll be able to achieve a much higher visibility.

For example, if you specialize in indoor plumbing, you might miss out on limited visibility for all those other home improvement keywords, but you’ll be the best in indoor plumbing.

2. Engage in a long-tail keyword strategy.

Long-tail keyword strategies try to accomplish a similar goal. In niche specialization, you sacrifice minimal relevance in a large volume of topics for maximum relevance in a much smaller volume of topics. With long-tail keywords, you’ll be sacrificing minimal ranking potential with highly popular keywords for maximum ranking potential with less popular keywords.

Long-tail keywords are extended phrases Google looks for, such as “tips for installing a toilet in an upstairs bathroom” instead of the much shorter, more popular “toilet installation.” Ranking highly for long-tail keywords is much easier than ranking high for shorter keywords, so even though they bring in less traffic, they’re still more valuable for small businesses to go after.

Fortunately, optimizing for long-tail keywords is easy. You can research ideal long-tail keywords to go after using Webmaster Tools, or you can just publish lots of great content — long-tail keyword phrases tend to appear naturally in the course of your writing. For further information on identifying and using long-tail keywords, see “The Rise of the Long-Tail Keyword for SEO” and “How to Find Long-Tail Keywords Once You’ve Identified Your Primary Keywords.”

3. Leverage locality for optimization.

Another way to beat the competition is by targeting a much more local audience. Local search is becoming more relevant and more important, so in today’s context, being the best barber shop in Houston is far better than being an OK barber shop on a national scale.

Even if your business does operate on a national (or international) level, you can still capture a niche market share and edge out your competition in at least one key area by optimizing for a specific local area. In this section, I’ll introduce a handful of specific strategies you can use to build your reputation and relevance in your given city.

Event attendance and community building. Get your name out there by getting involved in the community. Attend major events whenever you can, such as fairs, festivals or community gatherings. This will give you two opportunities: First, you’ll immediately generate more business simply by being at the event and offering discounts or promotions to event attendees. Second, and more importantly for SEO, you’ll have the opportunity to brag about your attendance online.

Post excellent content on your website, using local-specific keywords, about your company’s attendance, and syndicate a press release about the opportunity for some high-authority and local-specific inbound links. This is one of the easiest ways to generate publicity and build some local-optimized content simultaneously.

Local reviews, on directory and aggregation sites such as Yelp or TripAdvisor, have become essential for local SEO. With Google’s Pigeon algorithm update earlier this year, Yelp and similar sites received a huge boost in priority. Now, sites with large volumes of positive reviews rank higher than similar sites with few or negative reviews. In fact, Yelp’s importance has increased so much that, in some cases, Yelp profiles are actually ranking higher than the official pages of the companies they represent.

What this means for small businesses is a new, key opportunity to jump in the rankings without worrying about producing content or building links. Instead, you can focus on cultivating strong, positive reviews from your customers. While Yelp explicitly forbids compensating your reviewers, or asking customers directly for reviews in any way, you can still encourage more reviews with Yelp stickers and occasional call-outs with a link on your social-media profiles.

Hyper-local content. Local search is getting more local, and taking advantage of that incoming trend could be the opportunity you need to crush a larger competitor — especially if that competitor operates in the same city as you.

Google is getting better at identifying and categorizing neighborhoods within a broader city, so you can take local search a step further by using neighborhood-specific keywords instead of just city and state names. Your potential success is determined by how Google views your neighborhood boundaries, so do some research before you begin.

4. Personalize your social engagement.

Aside from local search optimization, you can also increase your chances of overcoming steep competition by stepping up the “personal” factor in your brand strategy. Large businesses tend to lose a portion of their personalities once they hit a certain point in their growth, but being small and nimble gives you the advantage of giving each follower a more personal, humanized experience.

Nurture your following on social media, and you’ll attract more posts and followers, and the bigger and more active your social-media presence is, the higher you’ll rank in Google.

5. Become a recognized, authoritative content publisher.

Building brand awareness, loyalty, trust and credibility requires frequent and quality content publication. Most companies utilize an on-site blog to publish content, while others produce and distribute ebooks, webinars, podcasts, videos and other forms of content through various other channels.

The keys to building your brand through a content strategy are quality and consistency. Maximize the reach of each piece of content you publish to maximize your return on investment, and be consistent with your publication schedule so you start to become recognized as a dependable authority.

Conclusion

There’s no shortcut to rise to the top of the search engine rankings, especially when there’s a massive competitor lingering on the scene. But with a strategy that leverages your geographic location and your agility, you can selectively overcome your competitors in specific key areas.

Give yourself the best odds by narrowing your topic and keyword focus and increasing your location-specific relevance. You might not rank for as many keywords as the bigger players, but you will be able to surpass them in relevance for your chosen focal points.” 

JAYSON DEMERS – Founder and CEO, AudienceBloom

Website Maintenance

Affordable Web Solutions offers a premium fully managed WordPress hosting solution built on a load-balanced, redundant, all cloud technology infrastructure with 24/7/365 monitoring and response. So what does all that jargon really mean? It simply means we make sure your site is up and running.

eCommerce Web Design

eCommerce

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Electronic commerce, commonly known as eCommerce, is trading in products or services using computer networks, such as the Internet. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange (EDI), inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web for at least one part of the transaction’s life cycle, although it may also use other technologies such as e-mail.

E-commerce businesses may employ some or all of the following:

  • Online shopping web sites for retail sales direct to consumers
  • Providing or participating in online marketplaces, which process third-party business-to-consumer or consumer-to-consumer sales
  • Business-to-business buying and selling
  • Gathering and using demographic data through web contacts and social media
  • Business-to-business electronic data interchange
  • Marketing to prospective and established customers by e-mail or fax (for example, with newsletters)
  • Engaging in pretail for launching new products and services

Timeline

A timeline for the development of e-commerce:

Business applications

An example of an automated online assistant on a merchandising website.

Some common applications related to electronic commerce are:

Governmental regulation

In the United States, some electronic commerce activities are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). These activities include the use of commercial e-mails, online advertising and consumer privacy. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 establishes national standards for direct marketing over e-mail. The Federal Trade Commission Act regulates all forms of advertising, including online advertising, and states that advertising must be truthful and non-deceptive.[27] Using its authority under Section 5 of the FTC Act, which prohibits unfair or deceptive practices, the FTC has brought a number of cases to enforce the promises in corporate privacy statements, including promises about the security of consumers’ personal information.[28] As result, any corporate privacy policy related to e-commerce activity may be subject to enforcement by the FTC.

The Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008, which came into law in 2008, amends the Controlled Substances Act to address online pharmacies.[29]

There is also collaboration between Google and US federal authorities to block illegal online pharmacies from appearing in Google search results.[30] Recently FedEx Corporation pleaded not guilty to charges made against it regarding dealing with illegal online pharmacies.[31]

Conflict of laws in cyberspace [32] is a major hurdle for harmonisation of legal framework for e-commerce around the world. In order to give a uniformity to e-commerce law around the world, many countries adopted the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996) [33]

Internationally there is the International Consumer Protection and Enforcement Network (ICPEN), which was formed in 1991 from an informal network of government customer fair trade organisations. The purpose was stated as being to find ways of co-operating on tackling consumer problems connected with cross-border transactions in both goods and services, and to help ensure exchanges of information among the participants for mutual benefit and understanding. From this came Econsumer.gov, an ICPEN initiative since April 2001. It is a portal to report complaints about online and related transactions with foreign companies.

There is also Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) was established in 1989 with the vision of achieving stability, security and prosperity for the region through free and open trade and investment. APEC has an Electronic Commerce Steering Group as well as working on common privacy regulations throughout the APEC region.

In Australia, Trade is covered under Australian Treasury Guidelines for electronic commerce,[34] and the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission[35] regulates and offers advice on how to deal with businesses online,[36][37] and offers specific advice on what happens if things go wrong.[38]

In the United Kingdom, The Financial Services Authority (FSA)[39] was formerly the regulating authority for most aspects of the EU’s Payment Services Directive (PSD), until its replacement in 2013 by the Prudential Regulation Authority and the Financial Conduct Authority.[40] The UK implemented the PSD through the Payment Services Regulations 2009 (PSRs), which came into effect on 1 November 2009. The PSR affects firms providing payment services and their customers. These firms include banks, non-bank credit card issuers and non-bank merchant acquirers, e-money issuers, etc. The PSRs created a new class of regulated firms known as payment institutions (PIs), who are subject to prudential requirements. Article 87 of the PSD requires the European Commission to report on the implementation and impact of the PSD by 1 November 2012.[41]

In India, the Information Technology Act 2000 governs the basic applicability of e-commerce. It is based upon UNCITRAL Model but is not a comprehensive legislation to deal with e-commerce related activities in India. Further, e-commerce laws and regulations in India [42] are also supplemented by different laws of India as applicable to the field of e-commerce. For instance, e-commerce relating to pharmaceuticals, healthcare, traveling, etc. are governed by different laws though the information technology act, 2000 prescribes some common requirements for all these fields. The competition commission of India (CCI) regulates anti competition and anti trade practices in e-commerce fields in India.[43] Some stakeholders have decided to approach courts and CCI against e-commerce websites to file complaint about unfair trade practices and predatory pricing by such e-commerce websites.[44][45]

Forms

Contemporary electronic commerce involves everything from ordering “digital” content for immediate online consumption, to ordering conventional goods and services, to “meta” services to facilitate other types of electronic commerce.

On the institutional level, big corporations and financial institutions use the internet to exchange financial data to facilitate domestic and international business. Data integrity and security are very hot and pressing issues for electronic commerce.

Aside from traditional e-Commerce, m-Commerce as well as the nascent t-Commerce[46] channels are often seen as the current 2013 poster children of electronic I-Commerce.

Global trends

In 2010, the United Kingdom had the biggest e-commerce market in the world when measured by the amount spent per capita.[47] The Czech Republic is the European country where ecommerce delivers the biggest contribution to the enterprises´ total revenue. Almost a quarter (24%) of the country’s total turnover is generated via the online channel.[48]

Among emerging economies, China’s e-commerce presence continues to expand every year. With 384 million internet users, China’s online shopping sales rose to $36.6 billion in 2009 and one of the reasons behind the huge growth has been the improved trust level for shoppers. The Chinese retailers have been able to help consumers feel more comfortable shopping online.[49] China’s cross-border e-commerce is also growing rapidly. E-commerce transactions between China and other countries increased 32% to 2.3 trillion yuan ($375.8 billion) in 2012 and accounted for 9.6% of China’s total international trade [50] In 2013, Alibaba had an e-commerce market share of 80% in China.[51]

Other BRIC countries are witnessing the accelerated growth of eCommerce as well. Brazil’s eCommerce is growing quickly with retail eCommerce sales expected to grow at a healthy double-digit pace through 2014. By 2016, eMarketer expects retail ecommerce sales in Brazil to reach $17.3 billion.[52] India has an internet user base of about 243.2 million as of January 2014. Despite being third largest userbase in world, the penetration of Internet is low compared to markets like the United States, United Kingdom or France but is growing at a much faster rate, adding around 6 million new entrants every month. The industry consensus is that growth is at an inflection point. In India, cash on delivery is the most preferred payment method, accumulating 75% of the e-retail activities.

E-Commerce has become an important tool for small and large businesses worldwide, not only to sell to customers, but also to engage them.[53][54]

In 2012, ecommerce sales topped $1 trillion for the first time in history.[55]

Mobile devices are playing an increasing role in the mix of eCommerce. Some estimates show that purchases made on mobile devices will make up 25% of the market by 2017.[56] According to Cisco Visual Networking Index,[57] in 2014 the amount of mobile devices will outnumber the number of world population.

Impact on markets and retailers

Economists have theorized that e-commerce ought to lead to intensified price competition, as it increases consumers’ ability to gather information about products and prices. Research by four economists at the University of Chicago has found that the growth of online shopping has also affected industry structure in two areas that have seen significant growth in e-commerce, bookshops and travel agencies. Generally, larger firms are able to useeconomies of scale and offer lower prices. The lone exception to this pattern has been the very smallest category of bookseller, shops with between one and four employees, which appear to have withstood the trend.[58]

Individual or business involved in e-commerce whether buyers or sellers rely on Internet-based technology in order to accomplish their transactions. E-commerce is recognized for its ability to allow business to communicate and to form transaction anytime and anyplace. Whether an individual is in the US or overseas, business can be conducted through the internet. The power of e-commerce allows geophysical barriers to disappear, making all consumers and businesses on earth potential customers and suppliers. eBay is a good example of e-commerce business individuals and businesses are able to post their items and sell them around the Globe.[59]

Distribution channels

E-commerce has grown in importance as companies have adopted pure-click and brick-and-click channel systems. We can distinguish pure-click and brick-and-click channel system adopted by companies.

  • Pure-click or pure-play companies are those that have launched a website without any previous existence as a firm.
  • Bricks-and-clicks companies are those existing companies that have added an online site for e-commerce.
  • Click-to-brick online retailers that later open physical locations to supplement their online efforts.[60]

Examples of new E-commerce system

According to eMarketer research company, “by 2017, 65.8 per cent of Britons will use smartphones”. (cited by Williams, 2014)

Bringing online experience into the real world, allows also the development of the economy and the interaction between stores and customers. A great example of this new e-commerce system is what the Burberry store in London did in 2012. They refurbished the entire store with numerous big screens, photo-studios, and also provided a stage for live acts. Moreover, on the digital screens which are across the store, some fashion shows´ images and advertising campaigns are displayed. (William, 2014) In this way, the experience of purchasing becomes more vivid and entertaining while the online and offline components are working together. Another example could be Kiddicare smartphone app, in which costumers can compare prices against adversaries. Moreover, the app allows people to know where the sale products are and to check whether the item they are looking for is in stock or if they have to ask for it online without going to the `real´ store. (William, 2014) In the United States, Walmart app in which you can check the product availability and prices both online and offline. Moreover, you can also add to your shopping list items by scanning them, see their details and information, and check purchasers´ ratings and reviews.

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Power, Michael ‘Mike’ (19 April 2013). “Online highs are old as the net: the first e-commerce was a drugs deal”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  2. Jump up^ Tkacz, Ewaryst; Kapczynski, Adrian (2009). Internet — Technical Development and Applications. Springer. p. 255. ISBN 978-3-642-05018-3. Retrieved 28 March 2011. The first pilot system was installing in Tesco in the UK (first demonstrated in 1979 by Michael Aldrich).
  3. Jump up^ 1988 Palmer.C Using IT for competitive advantage at Thomson Holidays, Long range Planning Vol 21 No.6 p26-29, Institute of Strategic Studies Journal,London- Pergamon Press [now Elsevier.B.V.] December 1988.
  4. Jump up^ [ht:tp://www.studymode.com/essays/E-Commerce-1554293.html “E Commerce – Essays – Hpandurang92”]. Study mode. Retrieved 17 June2013.
  5. Jump up^ “Online shopping: The pensioner who pioneered a home shopping revolution”. BBC News. 16 September 2013.
  6. Jump up^ Aldrich, Michael. “Finding Mrs Snowball”. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
  7. Jump up^ “The Electronic Mall”. GS Brown. 30 April 2010. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  8. Jump up^ “Tim Berners-Lee: WorldWideWeb, the first Web client”. W3. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  9. Jump up^ Snider, J.H.; Ziporyn, Terra (1992). Future Shop: How New Technologies Will Change the Way We Shop and What We Buy. St. Martin’s Press. ISBN 978-0-312-06359-7. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  10. Jump up^ “AppWrapper Volume 1 Issue 3 Ships” (press release).
  11. Jump up^ http://news.cnet.com/E-commerce-turns-10/2100-1023_3-5304683.html
  12. Jump up^ Kevin, Kelly (August 2005), “We Are the Web”, Wired 13(8)
  13. Jump up^ “FIrst Electronic Stamps Being Put to Test”.Sunday Business. 6 April 1998. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  14. Jump up^ “eBay acquires PayPal”. Investor. eBay. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
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  18. Jump up^ Ahmed, Saqib Iqbal (27 October 2009). “GSI Commerce to buy Retail Convergence for $180 mln”. Reuters. Retrieved 6 April 2013.
  19. Jump up^ “Groupon rejects Google’s $6 billion offer”.MS‐NBC. MSN. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  20. Jump up^ “Groupon’s IPO biggest by U.S. Web company since Google”. Reuters. 4 November 2011. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
  21. Jump up^ “Amazon buys Diapers.com parent in $545 mln deal”. MarketWatch. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  22. Jump up^ “eBay Acquires GSI Commerce For $2.4 Billion in Cash And Debt”. TechCrunch. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  23. Jump up^ “2013 Holiday Season U.S. Desktop E-Commerce Spending Reaches Record $46.5 Billion, Up 10 Percent vs. Year Ago”. 7 January 2014. Retrieved27 August 2014.
  24. Jump up^ Duryee, Tricia (2014-03-04). “Overstock hits $1 million in sales from virtual currency”. Geekwire. Retrieved 2014-05-07.
  25. Jump up^ Laus, Petronela (8 January 2014). “India Weighs FDI In E-Commerce”. The Wall Street Journal India.
  26. Jump up^ “US eCommerce Forecast: 2013 to 2018”. Forrester Research.
  27. Jump up^ “Advertising and Marketing on the Internet: Rules of the Road”. Federal Trade Commission.
  28. Jump up^ “Enforcing Privacy Promises: Section 5 of the FTC Act”. Federal Trade Commission.
  29. Jump up^ “H.R. 6353: Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008”. Govtrack.
  30. Jump up^ “Illegal Online Pharmacies Are On Hit List Of Google And Federal Authorities Of US”. Exclusive Techno Legal Centre Of Excellence For Cyber Crimes Investigation In India. 14 March 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  31. Jump up^ “FedEx Corporation Pleaded Not Guilty To U.S. Charges Of Delivering Prescribed Drugs From Illegal Internet Pharmacies”. E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India. 31 July 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  32. Jump up^ “Conflict Of Laws In Cyberspace, Internet And Computer Era”. Conflict Of Laws In Cyberspace, Internet And Computer Era. 9 October 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  33. Jump up^ “UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce (1996)”. UNCITRAL. 12 June 1996. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  34. Jump up^ “Australian Treasury Guidelines for electronic commerce”. Australian Federal Government.
  35. Jump up^ “Australian Competition and Consumer Commission”. Australian Federal Government.
  36. Jump up^ “Dealing with Businesses Online in Australia”. Australian Federal Government.
  37. Jump up^ “Australian government ecommerce website”. Australian Federal Government.
  38. Jump up^ “What to do if thing go wrong in Australia”. Australian Federal Government.
  39. Jump up^ “FSA”. UK.
  40. Jump up^ George Parker and Brooke Masters (16 June 2010). “Osborne abolishes FSA and boosts Bank”. Financial Times.
  41. Jump up^ “The Payment Services Regulations 2009”. UK: Legislation. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  42. Jump up^ “E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India”. Online Business, E-Business And E-Tailing Laws And Regulations In India And E-Commerce Laws And Regulations In India. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
  43. Jump up^ “India Should Regulate Taxation, Anti Competitive Practices And Predatory Pricing Of Indian And Foreign E-Commerce Websites”. E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India. 8 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  44. Jump up^ “FPBAI Questions The Predatory Pricing Tactics Of E-Commerce Websites Of India”. E-Retailing Laws And Regulations In India. 9 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  45. Jump up^ “CAIT to launch nationwide protest against online retail cos”.Business Standard. 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  46. Jump up^ Hacon, Tom. “T-Commerce – What the tablet can do for brands and their consumers”. Governor Technology. Retrieved 2013-03-04.
  47. Jump up^ Robinson, James (28 October 2010). “UK’s internet industry worth £100bn”. The Guardian (report) (London). Retrieved 21 December2012.
  48. Jump up^ Eurostat (18 June 2013). “Ecommerce contribution in Europe” (infographic). Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  49. Jump up^ Olsen, Robert (18 January 2010). “China’s migration to eCommerce”. Forbes.
  50. Jump up^ Tong, Frank (16 September 2013). “China’s cross-border e-commerce tops $375 billion in 2012”. Internet Retailer.
  51. Jump up^ Steven Millward (17 September 2014). “Here are all the must-see numbers on Alibaba ahead of record-breaking IPO”.Tech In Asia. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  52. Jump up^ “More Buyers Join Brazil’s Robust Ecommerce Market”. eMarketer.
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Small Business Web Design

Web design

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The different areas of web design include web graphic design; interface design; authoring, including standardised code and proprietary software; user experience design; and search engine optimization. Often many individuals will work in teams covering different aspects of the design process, although some designers will cover them all.[1] The term web design is normally used to describe the design process relating to the front-end (client side) design of a website including writing mark up. Web design partially overlaps web engineering in the broader scope of web development. Web designers are expected to have an awareness of usability and if their role involves creating mark up then they are also expected to be up to date with web accessibility guidelines.

History

Web design books in a store

1988—2001

Although web design has a fairly recent history, it can be linked to other areas such as graphic design. However web design can also be seen from a technological standpoint. It has become a large part of people’s everyday lives. It is hard to imagine the Internet without animated graphics, different styles of typography, background and music.

The start of the web and web design

In 1989, whilst working at CERN Tim Berners-Lee proposed to create a global hypertext project, which later became known as the World Wide Web. During 1991 to 1993 the World Wide Web was born. Text-only pages could be viewed using a simple line-mode browser.[2] In 1993 Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina, created the Mosaic browser. At the time there were multiple browsers, however the majority of them were Unix-based and naturally text heavy. There had been no integrated approach to graphic design elements such as images or sounds. The Mosaic browser broke this mould.[3] The W3C was created in October 1994 to “lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its interoperability.”[4] This discouraged any one company from monopolizing a propriety browser and programming language, which could have altered the effect of the World Wide Web as a whole. The W3C continues to set standards, which can today be seen with JavaScript. In 1994 Andreessen formed Communications Corp. that later became known as Netscape Communications, the Netscape 0.9 browser. Netscape created its own HTML tags without regard to the traditional standards process. For example, Netscape 1.1 included tags for changing background colours and formatting text with tables on web pages. Throughout 1996 to 1999 the browser wars began, as Microsoft and Netscape fought for ultimate browser dominance. During this time there were many new technologies in the field, notably Cascading Style Sheets,JavaScript, and Dynamic HTML. On the whole, the browser competition did lead to many positive creations and helped web design evolve at a rapid pace.[5]

Evolution of web design

In 1996, Microsoft released its first competitive browser, which was complete with its own features and tags. It was also the first browser to support style sheets, which at the time was seen as an obscure authoring technique.[5] The HTML markup for tables was originally intended for displaying tabular data. However designers quickly realized the potential of using HTML tables for creating the complex, multi-column layouts that were otherwise not possible. At this time, as design and good aesthetics seemed to take precedence over good mark-up structure, and little attention was paid to semantics and web accessibility. HTML sites were limited in their design options, even more so with earlier versions of HTML. To create complex designs, many web designers had to use complicated table structures or even use blank spacer .GIF images to stop empty table cells from collapsing.[6] CSS was introduced in December 1996 by the W3C to support presentation and layout. This allowed HTML code to be semantic rather than both semantic and presentational, and improved web accessibility, see tableless web design.

In 1996, Flash (originally known as FutureSplash) was developed. At the time, the Flash content development tool was relatively simple compared to now, using basic layout and drawing tools, a limited precursor toActionScript, and a timeline, but it enabled web designers to go beyond the point of HTML, animated GIFs and JavaScript. However, because Flash required a plug-in, many web developers avoided using it for fear of limiting their market share due to lack of compatibility. Instead, designers reverted to gif animations (if they didn’t forego using motion graphics altogether) and JavaScript for widgets. But the benefits of Flash made it popular enough among specific target markets to eventually work its way to the vast majority of browsers, and powerful enough to be used to develop entire sites.[6]

End of the first browser wars

During 1998 Netscape released Netscape Communicator code under an open source licence, enabling thousands of developers to participate in improving the software. However, they decided to start from the beginning, which guided the development of the open source browser and soon expanded to a complete application platform.[5] The Web Standards Project was formed and promoted browser compliance with HTML and CSSstandards by creating Acid1, Acid2, and Acid3 tests. 2000 was a big year for Microsoft. Internet Explorer was released for Mac; this was significant as it was the first browser that fully supported HTML 4.01 and CSS 1, raising the bar in terms of standards compliance. It was also the first browser to fully support the PNG image format.[5] During this time Netscape was sold to AOL and this was seen as Netscape’s official loss to Microsoft in the browser wars.[5]

2001—2012

Since the start of the 21st century the web has become more and more integrated into peoples lives. As this has happened the technology of the web has also moved on. There have also been significant changes in the way people use and access the web, and this has changed how sites are designed.

Modern browsers

Since the end of the browsers wars there have been new browsers coming onto the scene. Many of these are open source meaning that they tend to have faster development and are more supportive of new standards. The new options are considered by many to be better than Microsoft’s Internet Explorer.

New standards

The W3C has released new standards for HTML (HTML5) and CSS (CSS3), as well as new JavaScript API’s, each as a new but individual standard. However, while the term HTML5 is only used to refer to the new version of HTML and some of the JavaScript API’s, it has become common to use it to refer to the entire suite of new standards (HTML5, CSS3 and JavaScript).

Tools and technologies

Web designers use a variety of different tools depending on what part of the production process they are involved in. These tools are updated over time by newer standards and software but the principles behind them remain the same. Web graphic designers use vector and raster graphics packages to create web-formatted imagery or design prototypes. Technologies used to create websites include standardised mark-up, which can be hand-coded or generated by WYSIWYG editing software. There is also proprietary software based on plug-ins that bypasses the client’s browser versions. These are often WYSIWYG but with the option of using the software’s scripting language. Search engine optimisation tools may be used to check search engine ranking and suggest improvements.

Other tools web designers might use include mark up validators[7] and other testing tools for usability and accessibility to ensure their web sites meet web accessibility guidelines.[8]

Skills and techniques

Marketing and communication design

Marketing and communication design on a website may identify what works for its target market. This can be an age group or particular strand of culture; thus the designer may understand the trends of its audience. Designers may also understand the type of website they are designing, meaning, for example, that (B2B) business-to-business website design considerations might differ greatly from a consumer targeted website such as aretail or entertainment website. Careful consideration might be made to ensure that the aesthetics or overall design of a site do not clash with the clarity and accuracy of the content or the ease of web navigation,[9]especially on a B2B website. Designers may also consider the reputation of the owner or business the site is representing to make sure they are portrayed favourably.

User experience design and interactive design

User understanding of the content of a website often depends on user understanding of how the website works. This is part of the user experience design. User experience is related to layout, clear instructions and labeling on a website. How well a user understands how they can interact on a site may also depend on the interactive design of the site. If a user perceives the usefulness of the website, they are more likely to continue using it. Users who are skilled and well versed with website use may find a more unique, yet less intuitive or less user-friendly website interface useful nonetheless. However, users with less experience are less likely to see the advantages or usefulness of a less intuitive website interface. This drives the trend for a more universal user experience and ease of access to accommodate as many users as possible regardless of user skill.[10] Much of the user experience design and interactive design are considered in the user interface design.

Advanced interactive functions may require plug-ins if not advanced coding language skills. Choosing whether or not to use interactivity that requires plug-ins is a critical decision in user experience design. If the plug-in doesn’t come pre-installed with most browsers, there’s a risk that the user will have neither the know how or the patience to install a plug-in just to access the content. If the function requires advanced coding language skills, it may be too costly in either time or money to code compared to the amount of enhancement the function will add to the user experience. There’s also a risk that advanced interactivity may be incompatible with older browsers or hardware configurations. Publishing a function that doesn’t work reliably is potentially worse for the user experience than making no attempt. It depends on the target audience if it’s likely to be needed or worth any risks.

Page layout

Part of the user interface design is affected by the quality of the page layout. For example, a designer may consider whether the site’s page layout should remain consistent on different pages when designing the layout. Page pixel width may also be considered vital for aligning objects in the layout design. The most popular fixed-width websites generally have the same set width to match the current most popular browser window, at the current most popular screen resolution, on the current most popular monitor size. Most pages are also center-aligned for concerns of aesthetics on larger screens.[11]

Fluid layouts increased in popularity around 2000 as an alternative to HTML-table-based layouts and grid-based design in both page layout design principle and in coding technique, but were very slow to be adopted.[note 1] This was due to considerations of screen reading devices and varying windows sizes which designers have no control over. Accordingly, a design may be broken down into units (sidebars, content blocks,embedded advertising areas, navigation areas) that are sent to the browser and which will be fitted into the display window by the browser, as best it can. As the browser does recognize the details of the reader’s screen (window size, font size relative to window etc.) the browser can make user-specific layout adjustments to fluid layouts, but not fixed-width layouts. Although such a display may often change the relative position of major content units, sidebars may be displaced below body text rather than to the side of it. This is a more flexible display than a hard-coded grid-based layout that doesn’t fit the device window. In particular, the relative position of content blocks may change while leaving the content within the block unaffected. This also minimizes the user’s need to horizontally scroll the page.

Responsive Web Design is a newer approach, based on CSS3, and a deeper level of per-device specification within the page’s stylesheet through an enhanced use of the CSS @media rule.

Typography

Web designers may choose to limit the variety of website typefaces to only a few which are of a similar style, instead of using a wide range of typefaces or type styles. Most browsers recognize a specific number of safe fonts, which designers mainly use in order to avoid complications.

Font downloading was later included in the CSS3 fonts module and has since been implemented in Safari 3.1, Opera 10 and Mozilla Firefox 3.5. This has subsequently increased interest in web typography, as well as the usage of font downloading.

Most site layouts incorporate negative space to break the text up into paragraphs and also avoid center-aligned text.[12]

Motion graphics

The page layout and user interface may also be affected by the use of motion graphics. The choice of whether or not to use motion graphics may depend on the target market for the website. Motion graphics may be expected or at least better received with an entertainment-oriented website. However, a website target audience with a more serious or formal interest (such as business, community, or government) might find animations unnecessary and distracting if only for entertainment or decoration purposes. This doesn’t mean that more serious content couldn’t be enhanced with animated or video presentations that is relevant to the content. In either case, motion graphic design may make the difference between more effective visuals or distracting visuals.

Quality of code

Website designers may consider it to be good practice to conform to standards. This is usually done via a description specifying what the element is doing. Failure to conform to standards may not make a website unusable or error prone, but standards can relate to the correct layout of pages for readability as well making sure coded elements are closed appropriately. This includes errors in code, more organized layout for code, and making sure IDs and classes are identified properly. Poorly-coded pages are sometimes colloquially called tag soup. Validating via W3C[7] can only be done when a correct DOCTYPE declaration is made, which is used to highlight errors in code. The system identifies the errors and areas that do not conform to web design standards. This information can then be corrected by the user.[13]

Homepage design

Usability experts, including Jakob Nielsen and Kyle Soucy, have often emphasised homepage design for website success and asserted that the homepage is the most important page on a website.[14][15][16][17] However practitioners into the 2000s were starting to find that a growing number of website traffic was bypassing the homepage, going directly to internal content pages through search engines, e-newsletters and RSS feeds.[18]Leading many practitioners to argue that homepages are less important than most people think.[19][20][21][22] Jared Spool argued in 2007 that a site’s homepage was actually the least important page on a website.[23]

In 2012 and 2013, carousels (also called ‘sliders’ and ‘rotating banners’) have become an extremely popular design element on homepages, often used to showcase featured or recent content in a confined space.[24][25] Many practitioners argue that carousels are an ineffective design element and hurt a website’s search engine optimisation and usability.[25][26][27]

Occupations

There are two primary jobs involved in creating a website: the web designer and web developer, who often work closely together on a website.[28] The web designers are responsible for the visual aspect, which includes the layout, coloring and typography of a web page. Web designers will also have a working knowledge of using a variety of languages such as HTML, CSS, JavaScript, PHP and Flash to create a site, although the extent of their knowledge will differ from one web designer to another. Particularly in smaller organizations one person will need the necessary skills for designing and programming the full web page, while larger organizations may have a web designer responsible for the visual aspect alone.[29]

Further jobs which may become involved in the creation of a website include:

  • Graphic designers to create visuals for the site such as logos, layouts and buttons
  • Internet marketing specialists to help maintain web presence through strategic solutions on targeting viewers to the site, by using marketing and promotional techniques on the internet
  • SEO writers to research and recommend the correct words to be incorporated into a particular website and make the website more accessible and found on numerous search engines
  • Internet copywriter to create the written content of the page to appeal to the targeted viewers of the site[1]
  • User experience (UX) designer incorporates aspects of user focused design considerations which include information architecture, user centered design, user testing, interaction design, and occasionally visual design.[30]

See also

See also

Related disciplines

Notes

  1. Jump up^ <table>-based markup and spacer .GIF images
  1. ^ Jump up to:a b Lester, Georgina. “Different jobs and responsibilities of various people involved in creating a website”. Arts Wales UK. Retrieved2012-03-17.
  2. Jump up^ “http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/Longer.html”. Retrieved 2012-03-16.
  3. Jump up^ “Mosaic Browser” (PDF). Retrieved 2012-03-16.
  4. Jump up^ Zwicky, E.D, Cooper, S and Chapman, D,B. (2000). Building Internet Firewalls. United States: O’Reily & Associates. p. 804. ISBN 1-56592-871-7.
  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Niederst, Jennifer (2006). Web Design In a Nutshell. United States of America: O’Reilly Media. pp. 12–14. ISBN 0-596-00987-9.
  6. ^ Jump up to:a b Chapman, Cameron, The Evolution of Web Design, Six Revisions, archived from the original on 30 October 2013
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b “W3C Markup Validation Service”.
  8. Jump up^ W3C. “Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)”.
  9. Jump up^ THORLACIUS, LISBETH (2007). “The Role of Aesthetics in Web Design”. Nordicom Review (28): 63–76. Retrieved 2014-07-18.
  10. Jump up^ Castan ̃eda, J.A; Francisco Mun ̃oz-Leiva, Teodoro Luque (2007). “Web Acceptance Model (WAM): Moderating effects of user experience”. Information & Management 44: 384–396. doi:10.1016/j.im.2007.02.003.
  11. Jump up^ Iteracy. “Web page size and layout”. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  12. Jump up^ Stone, John (2009-11-16). “20 Do’s and Don’ts of Effective Web Typography”. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  13. Jump up^ W3C QA. “My Web site is standard! And yours?”. Retrieved 2012-03-21.
  14. Jump up^ Soucy, Kyle, Is Your Homepage Doing What It Should?, Usable Interface, archived from the original on 8 June 2012
  15. Jump up^ Nielsen & Tahir 2001.
  16. Jump up^ Nielsen, Jakob (10 November 2003), The Ten Most Violated Homepage Design Guidelines, Nielsen Norman Group, archived from the original on 5 October 2013
  17. Jump up^ Knight, Kayla (20 August 2009), Essential Tips for Designing an Effective Homepage, Six Revisions, archived from the original on 21 August 2013
  18. Jump up^ Spool, Jared (29 September 2005), Is Home Page Design Relevant Anymore?, User Interface Engineering, archived from the original on 16 September 2013
  19. Jump up^ Chapman, Cameron (15 September 2010), 10 Usability Tips Based on Research Studies, Six Revisions, archived from the original on 2 September 2013
  20. Jump up^ Gócza, Zoltán, Myth #17: The homepage is your most important page, archived from the original on 2 June 2013
  21. Jump up^ McGovern, Gerry (18 April 2010), The decline of the homepage, archived from the original on 24 May 2013
  22. Jump up^ Porter, Joshua (24 April 2006), Prioritizing Design Time: A Long Tail Approach, User Interface Engineering, archived from the original on 14 May 2013
  23. Jump up^ Spool, Jared (6 August 2007), Usability Tools Podcast: Home Page Design, archived from the original on 29 April 2013
  24. Jump up^ Bates, Chris (9 October 2012), Best practices in carousel design for effective web marketing, Smart Insights, archived from the original on 3 April 2013
  25. ^ Jump up to:a b Messner, Katie (22 April 2013), Image Carousels: Getting Control of the Merry-Go-Round, Usability.gov, archived from the original on 10 October 2013
  26. Jump up^ Jones, Harrison (19 June 2013), Homepage Sliders: Bad For SEO, Bad For Usability, archived from the original on 22 November 2013
  27. Jump up^ Laja, Peep (27 September 2012), Don’t Use Automatic Image Sliders or Carousels, Ignore the Fad, ConversionXL, archived from the original on 25 November 2013
  28. Jump up^ Oleksy, Walter (2001). Careers in Web Design. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,Inc. pp. 9–11. ISBN 9780823931910.
  29. Jump up^ “Web Designer”. Retrieved 2012-03-19.
  30. Jump up^ Davies, Anthony, J. “What is a UX/IA?”. Retrieved 2012-03-19.

Mobile Web Design

Mobile Web

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Websites re-designed for mobile screens, with sizes ranging from smartphones,netbooks, and tablets, to laptops, with a desktop screen shown for scale.

The mobile web refers to access to the world wide web, i.e. the use of browser-based Internet services, from a handheld mobile device, such as a smartphone or a feature phone, connected to a mobile network or other wireless network.

Traditionally, access to the Web has been via fixed-line services on laptops and desktop computers. However, the Web is becoming more accessible by portable and wireless devices. An early 2010 ITU (International Telecommunication Union) report said that with the current growth rates, web access by people on the go — via laptops and smart mobile devices – is likely to exceed web access from desktop computers within the next five years.[1] The shift to mobile Web access has been accelerating with the rise since 2007 of larger multitouch smartphones, and of multitouch tablet computers since 2010. Both platforms provide better Internet access, screens, and mobile browsers– or application-based user Web experiences than previous generations of mobile devices have done. Web designers may work separately on such pages, or pages may be automatically converted as in Mobile Wikipedia.

The distinction between mobile Web applications and native applications is anticipated to become increasingly blurred, as mobile browsers gain direct access to the hardware of mobile devices (including accelerometers and GPS chips), and the speed and abilities of browser-based applications improve. Persistent storage and access to sophisticated user interface graphics functions may further reduce the need for the development of platform-specific native applications.

The Mobile Web has also been called Web 3.0, drawing parallels to the changes users were experiencing as Web 2.0 websites proliferated.[2][3][4]

Mobile Web access today still suffers from interoperability and usability problems. Interoperability issues stem from the platform fragmentation of mobile devices, mobile operating systems, and browsers. Usability problems are centered on the small physical size of the mobile phone form factors (limits on display resolution and user input/operating). Despite these shortcomings, many mobile developers choose to create apps using mobile Web. A June 2011 research on mobile development found mobile Web the third most used platform, trailing Android and iOS.[5]

In an article in Communications of the ACM in April 2013, Web technologist Nicholas C. Zakas, noted that mobile phones in use in 2013 were more powerful than Apollo 11‘s 70 lb (32 kg) Apollo Guidance Computerused in the July 1969 lunar landing.[6][7][8] However, in spite of their power, in 2013, mobile devices still suffer from Web performance with slow connections similar to the 1996 stage of Web development.[7][8] Mobile devices with slower download request/response times, the latency of over-the-air data transmission,[7][8] with “high-latency connections, slower CPUs, and less memory” force developers to rethink Web applications created for desktops with “wired connections, fast CPUs, and almost endless memory.”[7][8]

Wikipedia viewed with Opera Minimobile web browser on a small-screen cellphone

Mobile access

‘Mobile Internet’ refers to access to the Internet via a cellular telephone service provider. It is wireless access that can handoff to another radio tower while it is moving across the service area. It can refer an immobile device that stays connected to one tower, but this is not the meaning of “mobile” here. Wi-Fi and other better methods are commonly available for users not on the move. Cellular base stations are more expensive to provide than a wireless base station that connects directly to an internet service provider, rather than through the telephone system.

A mobile phone, such as a smartphone, that connects to data or voice services without going through the cellular base station is not on mobile Internet. A laptop with a broadband modem and a cellular service provider subscription, that is traveling on a bus through the city is on mobile Internet.

A mobile broadband modem “tethers” the smartphone to one or more computers or other end user devices to provide access to the Internet via the protocols that cellular telephone service providers may offer.

According to BuzzCity, mobile internet increased 30% from Q1 to Q2 2011. The four countries which have advertising impression (?) in total more than 1 billion in one quarter were India, Indonesia, Vietnam and United States.[9] As of July 2012, approximately 10.5% of all Web traffic occurs through mobile devices (up from 4% in December 2010).[10]

Standards

Total data consumed by Opera Mini users worldwide from 2006 to mid-2008 in TB

Standards improve the interoperability, usability, and accessibility of mobile web usage.

The Mobile Web Initiative (MWI) was set up by the W3C to develop the best practices and technologies relevant to the mobile Web. The goal of the initiative is to make browsing the Web from mobile devices more reliable and accessible. The main aim is to evolve standards of data formats from Internet providers that are tailored to the specifications of particular mobile devices. The W3C has published guidelines for mobile content, and is addressing the problem of device diversity by establishing a technology to support a repository of device descriptions.

W3C is also developing a validating scheme to assess the readiness of content for the mobile web, through its mobileOK Scheme, which will help content developers to quickly determine if their content is web-ready. The W3C guidelines and mobile OK approach have not been immune from criticism. This puts the emphasis on Adaptation, which is now seen as the key process in achieving the ubiquitous web, when combined with a device description repository.

mTLD, the registry for .mobi, has released a free testing tool called the MobiReady Report (see mobiForge) to analyze the mobile readiness of website. It does a free page analysis and gives a Mobi Ready score. This report tests the mobile-readiness of the site using industry best practices and standards.

Other standards for the mobile web are being documented and explored for particular applications by interested industry groups, such as the use of the mobile web for the purpose of education and training.

Development

The first access to the mobile web was commercially offered in Finland in 1996 on the Nokia 9000 Communicator phone via the Sonera and Radiolinja networks. This was access to the real internet. The first commercial launch of a mobile-specific browser-based web service was in 1999 in Japan when i-mode was launched by NTT DoCoMo.

Evolution of mobile web standards

The mobile Web primarily utilises lightweight pages like this one written in Extensible Hypertext Markup Language(XHTML) or Wireless Markup Language (WML) to deliver content to mobile devices. Many new mobile browsers are moving beyond these limits by supporting a wider range of Web formats, including variants of HTML commonly found on the desktop Web.

Top-level domain

The .mobi sponsored top-level domain was launched specifically for the mobile Internet by a consortium of companies including Google, Microsoft, Nokia, Samsung, and Vodafone. By forcing sites to comply with mobile web standards, .mobi tries to ensure visitors a consistent and optimized experience on their mobile device. However, this domain has been criticized by several big names, including Tim Berners-Lee of the W3C, who claims that it breaks the device independence of the web:

It is fundamentally useful to be able to quote the URI for some information and then look up that URI in an entirely different context. For example, I may want to look up a restaurant on my laptop, bookmark it, and then, when I only have my phone, check the bookmark to have a look at the evening menu. Or, my travel agent may send me a pointer to my itinerary for a business trip. I may view the itinerary from my office on a large screen and want to see the map, or I may view it at the airport from my phone when all I want is the gate number.

Dividing the Web into information destined for different devices, or different classes of user, or different classes of information, breaks the Web in a fundamental way.

I urge ICANN not to create the “.mobi” top level domain.

Advertising

Advertisers are increasingly using the mobile Web as a platform to reach consumers. The total value of advertising on mobile was 2.2 billion dollars in 2007. A recent study by the Online Publishers Association reported that about one-in-ten mobile Web users said they have made a purchase based on a mobile Web ad, while 23% said they have visited a Web site, 13% said they have requested more information about a product or service and 11% said they have gone to a store to check out a product.

Limitations

Though Internet access “on the go” provides advantages to many, such as the ability to communicate by email with others and obtain information anywhere, the web, accessed from mobile devices, has many limits, which may vary, depending on the device. However, newer smartphones overcome some of these restrictions. Some problems which may be encountered include:

  • Small screen size – This makes it difficult or impossible to see text and graphics dependent on the standard size of a desktop computer screen.
  • Lack of windows – On a desktop computer, the ability to open more than one window at a time allows for multi-tasking and for easy revert to a previous page. Historically on mobile web, only one page could be displayed at a time, and pages could only be viewed in the sequence they were originally accessed. However, Opera Mini[11] was among the first allowing multiple windows, and browser tabs have become commonplace but few mobile browsers allow overlapping windows on the screen.
  • Navigation – Navigation is a problem for websites not optimized for mobile devices as the content area is large, the screen size is small, and there is no scroll wheel orhoverbox feature.
  • Lack of JavaScript and cookies – Most devices do not support client-side scripting and storage of cookies (smartphones excluded), which are now widely used in most Web sites to enhance user experience, facilitating the validation of data entered by the page visitor, etc. This also results in web analytics tools being unable to uniquely identify visitors using mobile devices.
  • Types of pages accessible – Many sites that can be accessed on a desktop cannot on a mobile device. Many devices cannot access pages with a secured connection, Flash or other similar software, PDFs, or video sites, although as of 2011, this has been changing.
  • Speed – On most mobile devices, the speed of service is slow, sometimes slower than dial-up Internet access.
  • Broken pages – On many devices, a single page as viewed on a desktop is broken into segments, each treated as a separate page. This further slows navigation.
  • Compressed pages – Many pages, in their conversion to mobile format, are squeezed into an order different from how they would customarily be viewed on a desktop computer.
  • Size of messages – Many devices have limits on the number of characters that can be sent in an email message.
  • Cost – the access and bandwidth charges levied by cellphone networks can be high if there is no flat fee per month.
  • Location of mobile user:
    • if advertisements reach phone users in private locations, users find them more distressful (Banerjee & Dholakia, 2008)
    • if the user is abroad the flat fee per month usually does not apply
  • Situation in which ad reaches user – When advertisements reach users in work-related situations, they may be considered more intrusive than in leisure situations (Banerjee & Dholakia, 2008)

The inability of mobile web applications to access the local capabilities on the mobile device can limit their ability to provide the same features as native applications. The OMTP BONDI activity is acting as a catalyst to enable a set of JavaScript APIs which can access local capabilities in a secure way on the mobile device. Specifications and a reference implementation[12] have been produced. Security is a key aspect in this provision in order to protect users from malicious web applications and widgets.

In addition to the limits of the device, there are limits that should be made known to users concerning the interference these devices cause in other electromagnetic technology.

The convergence of the Internet and phone, in particular has caused hospitals to increase their mobile phone exclusion zones. A study by Erik van Lieshout and colleagues (Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam) has found that the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) used in modern phones can affect machines from up to 3 meters away. The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) signals, used in 3G networks, have a smaller exclusion zone of just a few centimeters. The worst offenders in hospitals are the doctors.[13]

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ “Press Release: ITU sees 5 billion mobile subscriptions globally in 2010”.
  2. Jump up^ “Web 3.0: The Mobile Era”. TechCrunch. 2012-08-11. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  3. Jump up^ “Web 3.0 to Merge the Physical and the Virtual – Technorati Business”. Technorati.com. 2012-09-26. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  4. Jump up^ Kevin Tea (2012-08-28). “Web 3.0 Is Here And It’s Mobile | BCW”. Businesscomputingworld.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  5. Jump up^ “Developer Economics 2011”.
  6. Jump up^ Robertson, Grant (20 July 2009). “How powerful was the Apollo 11 computer?”.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Zakas, Nicholas C. (17 February 2013). “The Evolution of Web Development for Mobile Devices: Building Web sites that perform well on mobile devices remains a challenge.”.Association for Computing Machinery.
  8. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Zakas, Nicholas C. (April 2013). “The Evolution of Web Development for Mobile Devices: Building Web sites that perform well on mobile devices remains a challenge.”.Communications of the ACM (New York, New York: Association for Computing Machinery) 56 (4).
  9. Jump up^ “BuzzCity: Mobile Ads are Growing, Indonesia is Still #2 in The World”. July 18, 2011.
  10. Jump up^ Macmanus, Richard. “Top Trends of 2012: The Continuing Rapid Growth of Mobile”. ReadWriteWeb. Retrieved 6 July 2012.
  11. Jump up^ “Download Opera browser for mobile devices – Opera Software”. Opera.com. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  12. Jump up^ “BONDI Reference Implementation”. omtp.org. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
  13. Jump up^ New Scientist, 15 September 2007: 5 Missing or empty |title= (help)

Los Angeles Web Developer

Web developer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A web developer is a programmer who specializes in, or is specifically engaged in, the development of World Wide Web applications, or distributed network applications that are run over HTTP from a web server to aweb browser.

Nature of employment

Web developers are found working in all types of organizations, including large corporations and governments, small and medium-sized companies, or alone as freelancers. Some web developers work for one organization as a permanent full-time employee, while others may work as independent consultants, or as contractors for an employment agency

Type of work performed

Modern web applications often contain three or more tiers,[1] and depending on the size of the team a developer works on, he or she may specialize in one or more of these tiers – or may take a more interdisciplinary role.[2]For example, in a two-person team, one developer may focus on the technologies sent to the client such as HTML, JavaScript, CSS, and on the server-side frameworks (such as Perl, Python, Ruby, PHP, Java, ASP, .NET,.NET MVC) used to deliver content and scripts to the client. Meanwhile the other developer might focus on the interaction between server-side frameworks, the web server, and a database system. Further, depending on the size of their organization, the aforementioned developers might work closely with a content creator/copy writer, marketing advisor, user experience designer, web designer, web producer, project manager, software architect, or database administrator – or they may be responsible for such tasks as web design and project management themselves.

Educational and licensure requirements

There are no formal educational or licensure requirements to become a web developer. However, many colleges and trade schools offer coursework in web development. There are also many tutorials and articles, which teach web development, freely available on the web – for example: http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Basic_JavaScript

Even though there are no formal educational requirements, dealing with web developing projects requires those who wish to be referred to as web developers to have advanced knowledge/skills in:

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Multiple (wiki). “Web application”. Docforge. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
  2. Jump up^ Multiple (wiki). “Web development”. Docforge. Retrieved2012-12-07.

Payment Solutions

E-commerce payment system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An e-commerce payment system facilitates the acceptance of electronic payment for online transactions. Also known as a sample of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), e-commerce payment systems have become increasingly popular due to the widespread use of the internet-based shopping and banking.

Over the years, credit cards have become one of the most common forms of payment for e-commerce transactions. In North America almost 90% of online B2C transactions were made with this payment type.[1] Turban et al. goes on to explain that it would be difficult for an online retailer to operate without supporting credit and debit cards due to their widespread use. Increased security measures include use of the card verification number (CVN) which detects fraud by comparing the verification number printed on the signature strip on the back of the card with the information on file with the cardholder’s issuing bank.[2] Also online merchants have to comply with stringent rules stipulated by the credit and debit card issuers (Visa and MasterCard)[3] this means that merchants must have security protocol and procedures in place to ensure transactions are more secure. This can also include having a certificate from an authorized certification authority (CA) who provides PKI(Public-Key infrastructure) for securing credit and debit card transactions.

Despite widespread use in North America, there are still a large number of countries such as China, India and Pakistan that have some problems to overcome in regard to credit card security. In the meantime, the use of smartcards has become extremely popular. A Smartcard is similar to a credit card; however it contains an embedded 8-bit microprocessor and uses electronic cash which transfers from the consumers’ card to the sellers’ device. A popular smartcard initiative is the VISA Smartcard. Using the VISA Smartcard you can transfer electronic cash to your card from your bank account, and you can then use your card at various retailers and on the internet.

There are companies that enable financial transactions to transpire over the internet, such as PayPal. Many of the mediaries permit consumers to establish an account quickly, and to transfer funds into their on-line accounts from a traditional bank account (typically via ACH transactions), and vice versa, after verification of the consumer’s identity and authority to access such bank accounts. Also, the larger mediaries further allow transactions to and from credit card accounts, although such credit card transactions are usually assessed a fee (either to the recipient or the sender) to recoup the transaction fees charged to the mediary.

The speed and simplicity with which cyber-mediary accounts can be established and used have contributed to their widespread use, although the risk of abuse, theft and other problems—with disgruntled users frequently accusing the mediaries themselves of wrongful behavior—is associated with them.

Methods of Online Payment

Although credit cards are most popular in the US and some other countries, there are a few alternative systems.

Net Banking

This is a system, well known in India, that does not involve any sort of physical card. It is used by customers who have accounts enabled with Internet Banking. Instead of entering card details on the purchaser’s site, in this system the payment gateway allows one to specify which bank they wish to pay from. Then the user is redirected to the bank’s website, where one can authenticate oneself and then approve the payment. Typically there will also be some form of two-factor authentication.

It is typically seen as being safer than using credit cards, with the result that nearly all merchant accounts in India offer it as an option.

A very similar system, known as iDEAL, is popular in the Netherlands.

PayPal

PayPal is a global e-commerce business allowing payments and money transfers to be made through the Internet. Online money transfers serve as electronic alternatives to paying with traditional paper methods, such as cheque’s and money orders. It is subject to the US economic sanction list and other rules and interventions required by US laws or government. PayPal is an acquirer, a performing payment processing for online vendors, auction sites, and other commercial users, for which it charges a fee. It may also charge a fee for receiving money, proportional to the amount received. The fees depend on the currency used, the payment option used, the country of the sender, the country of the recipient, the amount sent and the recipient’s account type. In addition, eBay purchases made by credit card through PayPal may incur extra fees if the buyer and seller use different currencies. On October 3, 2002, PayPal became a wholly owned subsidiary of eBay. Its corporate headquarters are in San Jose, California, United States at eBay’s North First Street satellite office campus. The company also has significant operations in Omaha, Scottsdale, Charlotte and Austin in the United States; Chennai in India; Dublin in Ireland; Berlin in Germany; and Tel Aviv in Israel. From July 2007, PayPal has operated across the European Union as a Luxembourg-based bank

Google Wallet

Google Wallet was launched in 2011, serving a similar function as PayPal to facilitate payments and transfer money online. It also features a security that has not been cracked to date, and the ability to send payments as attachments via email.[4]

VTC Pay

VTC Pay is E- Commerce payment system, very well known in Vietnam. A moderate connector among Buyers, Sellers and Banks. It is on behalf of customers who have bank accounts to conduct receipt and payment transactions. Own the largest payment network in Vietnam with 29 domestic banks and 02 International Card Manufacturers Associations. In addition, VTC Pay Wallet is an electronic money storage service . It is used to conduct online payment such as e-commerce and electronic bill payment.

See also

References

  1. Jump up^ Turban, E. King, D. McKay, J. Marshall, P. Lee, J & Vielhand, D. (2008). Electronic Commerce 2008: A Managerial Perspective. London: Pearson Education Ltd. p.550
  2. Jump up^ Turban, E. King, D. McKay, J. Marshall, P. Lee, J & Vielhand, D. (2008). Electronic Commerce 2008: A Managerial Perspective. London: Pearson Education Ltd. p.554
  3. Jump up^ Mastercard: Security Rules and Procedures-Merchant Edition (PDF). 2009. Retrieved: May 12, 2009
  4. Jump up^ http://www.google.com/wallet

CMS Systems

Content management system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A content management system (CMS)[1][2][3] is a computer application that allows publishing, editing and modifying content, organizing, deleting as well as maintenance from a central interface.[4] Such systems ofcontent management provide procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment.[5] These procedures can be manual steps or an automated cascade. CMSs have been available since the late 1990s.

CMSs are often used to run websites containing blogs, news, and shopping. Many corporate and marketing websites use CMSs. CMSs typically aim to avoid the need for hand coding, but may support it for specific elements or entire pages.

Main features

The function and use of content management systems is to store and organize files, and provide version-controlled access to their data. CMS features vary widely. Simple systems showcase a handful of features, while other releases, notably enterprise systems, offer more complex and powerful functions. Most CMS include Web-based publishing, format management, revision control (version control), indexing, search, and retrieval. The CMS increments the version number when new updates are added to an already-existing file. Some content management systems also support the separation of content and presentation.

A CMS may serve as a central repository containing documents, movies, pictures, phone numbers, scientific data. CMSs can be used for storing, controlling, revising, semantically enriching and publishing documentation.

Distinguishing between the basic concepts of user and content. The content management system (CMS) has two elements:

  • Content management application (CMA) is the front-end user interface that allows a user, even with limited expertise, to add, modify and remove content from a Web site without the intervention of a Webmaster.
  • Content display application (CDA) compiles that information and updates the Web site.

Web content management system

A content management system (Web CMS) is a bundled or stand-alone application to create, deploy, manage and store content on Web pages. Web content includes text and embedded graphics, photos, video, audio, and code (e.g., for applications) that displays content or interacts with the user. Content Management has many roles in today’s market place and is an important base for any website blogging, articles, news, description of products etc.[6] A Web CMS may catalog and index content, select or assemble content at runtime, or deliver content to specific visitors in a requested way, such as other languages. Web CMSs usually allow client control over HTML-based content, files, documents, and Web hosting plans based on the system depth and the niche it serves.

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Managing Enterprise Content: A Unified Content Strategy. Ann Rockley, Pamela Kostur, Steve Manning. New Riders, 2003.
  2. Jump up^ The content management handbook. Martin White. Facet Publishing, 2005.
  3. Jump up^ Content Management Bible, Bob Boiko. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
  4. Jump up^ Paul Boag (2009-05-05). “10 Things To Consider When Choosing The Perfect CMS”. SMASHING MAGAZINE. Archived from the original on 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  5. Jump up^ Moving Media Storage Technologies: Applications & Workflows for Video and Media Server Platforms. Francis US, 2011. Page 381
  6. Jump up^ “Content Management System & it’s benefits”. 21 November 2014.

CRM Solutions

Customer relationship management

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Customer relationship management (CRM) is a system for managing a company’s interactions with current and future customers. It often involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize sales,marketing, customer service, and technical support.[1]

CRM products

CRM products come with many features and tools and it is important for a company to choose a product based on their specific organizational needs. Most vendors will present information on their respective websites.

  • Features These are what the product actually does and what value it can provide to an organization.
  • Support Many CRM vendors have a basic level of support which generally only includes email and/or access to a support forum.[2][3][4] Telephone support is often charged in either an annual or ad hoc pricing strategy. Some companies offer on-site support for an extra premium.[5]
  • Pricing This will be shown either per-user[4] or as a flat price for a number of users.[6] Vendors charge annually, quarterly, or monthly with variable pricing options for different features.
  • Demonstration Periods Many vendors offer a trial period and/or online demonstrations.

Characteristics of CRM

  • Relationship management is a customer-oriented feature with service response based on customer input, one-to-one solutions to customers’ requirements, direct online communications with customer and customer service centers that help customers solve their issues.
  • Sales force automation. This function can implement sales promotion analysis, automate tracking of a client’s account history for repeated sales or future sales, and also сoordinate sales, marketing, call centers, and retail outlets in order to realize the salesforce automation.
  • Use of technology. This feature is about following the technology trends and skills of value delivering using technology to make “up-to-the-second” customer data available. It applies data warehouse technology in order to aggregate transaction information, to merge the information with CRM products, and to provide KPI (key performance indicators).
  • Opportunity management. This feature helps the company to manage unpredictable growth and demand and implement a good forecasting model to integrate sales history with sales projections.[7]
  • CRM in developing and maintaining client relationships.
  • Increasingly CRM is expanding outside of the core sales and marketing areas and systems are available that incorporate support and finance data also into the CRM view that a user gets, enabling a wider holistic view of a customer from one screen for a user.
  • Customer relationship management systems track and measure marketing campaigns over multiple networks. These systems can track customer analysis by customer clicks and sales.

CRM implementation

Implementing CRM in a company

The following are general guidelines on implementing a CRM system.

  1. Make a strategic decision on what problems you want your CRM system to address, what improvements or changes it should bring in the business processes of the organization.
  2. Choose an appropriate project manager. Typically IT will be engaged, however a manager with a customer service/sales and marketing business focus should be involved, as the impact of the project will be mainly on the business side.
  3. Ensure executive sponsorship and top management support.
  4. Empower team members with the required authority to complete the tasks.
  5. Select the correct implementation partner. They must have both vertical and horizontal business knowledge, as well as technical expertise.
  6. Define KPI’s that will measure the project’s success.
  7. Use a phased approach. Work towards long-term enterprise-scale implementation through a series of smaller, phased implementations.[8]

Impact of social networking on E-CRM

  1. A huge number of people use the Internet every day, various target different browsers website (social, cultural, political and other benefits), because there is a lot of information available that is easy to access quickly as needed. The majority of users through a variety of social networking sites, such as Facebook, LinkedIn and many other sites scrolling. Since these sites to provide users with a variety of services, including interactive with friends or business community to exchange information and interests. Research Balaram (2010)[9] presented evidence, a significant increase in the use of social networking sites, especially among young people. This causes companies to use effective means of attention these sites to sell their products, services and brands. Thus increasing demand for its products.
  1. Social Networks: It is an online service or online sites allow the establishment of an online community or group of people to interact and share common interests and activists. Such as Facebook, Twitter or chat rooms.[10]
  1. Availability of Internet services in this era is a revolution in the world of communications, where it allows users to send and retrieve information quickly with the central availability. In addition, by using a network of Internet data / network required to retrieve or send between folds in a simple manner can navigate. In addition, through the use of social networking sites, users can communicate and get information about other users, and even information about the company. This information describes individuals or companies. Promote the exchange and sharing of benefits. Social networking provides options for users to search and browse based on the needs and interests required information and access to them is. This will include the needs of the organization, in order to reach the largest number of individuals and the composition of the substrate vast level.Through social networking sites can create comments and suggestions of a special account or group can posts, and even job-related information and project work.
  1. Use of enterprise portals, especially exist; the integration and cooperation organizations, where the use of the Internet can be an important means to achieve the maximum benefit to the organization. In addition, the ability to manage and use information via the Internet organization, because the information from internal and external organization can. This increases the overall efficiency and regulations require businesses. It is possible to manage the business knowledge, and to provide information needed for a simple manner.[11] In addition, social networking sites to provide users with the possibility to build their own account, and add their own things or comments, for example, what they like, they hate, date of birth, place of residence and other problems. Therefore, it is easy to communicate with and contact them with the others, even some of the media to send a message or post notification. Users can also choose to select who will have permission to share or communicate, and build their own privacy options.
  1. In short, consider social networking as a platform for online businesses or individuals and effective tool, because it is free and easy to use. Therefore, it is possible for companies to adopt through effective communication and social interaction provides the company’s vision, from the advantages of this platform. And the company may exercise its own marketing, sales, and for their clients to provide services in a broad range. In addition, these sites can be deployed a lot of information, which will help the company move from its place to the whole world.

The impact of implementing CRM system on Customer Satisfaction

According to Bolton’s work, Customer satisfaction has significant implications for the economic performance of firms[12] Because customer satisfaction has been found to have a negative impact on customer complaints and a positive impact on customer loyalty and usage behavior.[13]

The benefits of implementing CRM are many, for example,

  1. Increased customer loyalty may increase usage levels [12]
  2. Secure future revenues [14]
  3. And minimize the likelihood of customer defection[15]

In a recent study, Anderson, Fornell, and Mazvancheryl (2004) find a strong relationship between customer satisfaction and Tobin’s q (as a measure of shareholder value) after controlling for fixed, random, and unobservable factors. The implementation of Customer relationship management (CRM) is likely to have an effect on customer satisfaction for at least three reasons:

Firstly, by implementing the CRM, the firms are able to customize their offerings for each customer. By accumulating information across customer interactions and processing this information to discover hidden patterns, CRM applications help firms customize their offerings to suit the individual tastes of their customers. Customized offerings enhance the perceived quality of products and services from a customer’s viewpoint. Because perceived quality is a determinant of customer satisfaction, it follows that CRM applications indirectly affect customer satisfaction through their effect on perceived quality.

Second, in addition to enhancing the perceived quality of the offering, CRM applications also enable firms to improve the reliability of consumption experiences by facilitating the timely, accurate processing of customer orders and requests and the ongoing management of customer accounts. For example, Piccoli and Applegate (2003) discuss how Wyndham uses IT tools to deliver a consistent service experience across its various properties to a customer. Both an improved ability to customize and a reduced variability of the consumption experience enhance perceived quality, which in turn positively affects customer satisfaction.[16]

Third, CRM applications also help firms manage customer relationships more effectively across the stages of relationship initiation, maintenance, and termination[17] In turn, effective management of the customer relationship is the key to managing customer satisfaction and customer loyalty.

Types

CRM in customer contact centers

CRM systems are customer relationship management platforms. The goal of the system is to track, record, store in databases, and then determine the information in a way that increases customer relations (predominantly increased ARPU, and decreased churn). The CRM codifies the interactions between you and your customers so that you can maximize sales and profit using analytics and KPIs to give the users as much information on where to focus their marketing and customer service to maximize revenue and decrease idle and unproductive contact with your customers. The contact channels (now aiming to be omni-channel from multi-channel) use such operational methods as contact centers. The CRM software is installed in the contact centers, and help direct customers to the right agent or self-empowered knowledge.[18] CRM software can also be used to identify and reward loyal customers over a period of time.

Growing in popularity is the idea of gamifying customer service environments. The repetitive and tedious act of answering support calls all day can be draining, even for the most enthusiastic customer service representative. When agents are bored with their work, they become less engaged and less motivated to do their jobs well. They are also prone to making mistakes. Gamification tools can motivate agents by tapping into their visceral need for reward, status, achievement, and competition.[19]

CRM in Business-to-Business (B2B) market

The modern environment requires one business to interact with another via the web. According to a Sweeney Group definition, CRM is “all the tools, technologies and procedures to manage, improve, or facilitate sales, support and related interactions with customers, prospects, and business partners throughout the enterprise”.[20] It assumes that CRM is involved in every B2B transaction.[7]

Despite the general notion that CRM systems were created for the customer-centric businesses, they can also be applied to B2B environments to streamline and improve customer management conditions. B2C and B2BCRM systems are not created equally and different CRM software applies to B2B and Business-to-Customer (B2C) conditions. B2B relationships usually have longer maturity times than B2C relationships. For the best level of CRM operation in a B2B environment, the software must be personalized and delivered at individual levels.[21]

Differences between CRM for Business to Business (B2B) and Business to Customers (B2C)

B2B and B2C marketing operates differently, and that is why they cannot use the same software. All the differences are focused on the approach of these two types of businesses:

  • B2B companies have smaller contact databases than B2C.
  • The amount of sales in B2B is relatively small.
  • In B2B there are less figure propositions, but in some cases they cost a lot more than B2C items.
  • Relationships in B2B environment are built over a longer period of time.
  • B2B CRM must be easily integrated with products from other companies. Such integration enables the creation of forecasts about customer behavior based on their buying history, bills, business success, etc.
  • An application for a B2B company must have a function to connect all the contacts, processes and deals among the customers segment and then prepare a paper.
  • Automation of sales process is an important requirement for B2B products. It should effectively manage the deal and progress it through all the phases towards signing.
  • A crucial point is personalization. It helps the B2B company to create and maintain strong and long-lasting relationship with the customer. To help the company communicate with their clients more effectively, there should be integration with the company’s email system.

SaaS CRM Software

Often referred to as “on-demand” software, SaaS based software is delivered via the Internet and does not require installation on your computer. Instead, you’ll generally access the software via your web browser. Businesses using the software do not purchase the software, but typically pay a recurring subscription fee to the software vendor.[22]

Small business

For small businesses a CRM system may simply consist of a contact manager system which integrates emails, documents, jobs, faxes, and scheduling for individual accounts. CRM systems available for specific markets (legal, finance) frequently focus on event management and relationship tracking as opposed to financial return on investment (ROI).

The issues and strength of small business

The poor management , lack of customer relationship management attention, first of all, from SME managers , many SME managers are more concerned about short-term interests , and for CRM,it is not obvious short-term interests is relatively insignificant.Second to small businesses from each department leaders, due to the limited knowledge of their culture, lead them to the customer relationship management system only know or heard of a phase, and implement customer relationship management (CRM) only has relationship with boss, has nothing to do with themselves, causing them to implement customer relationship management (CRM) is not value.Such as small and medium-sized enterprises in implementing customer relationship management system by introducing the customer relationship management system is not suitable, although its existing problems and realized immediately stop using the system, but the company finally did not introduce new customer relationship management (CRM) systems, are using artificial half automation of customer relationship management (CRM) system, this is because the company boss not value of customer relationship management and leadership, lead to small and medium-sized enterprise management level in customer relationship management (CRM) behind the big company of customer relationship management (CRM).In short, lead to small and medium-sized enterprises to realize the importance of customer relationship management (CRM) is not enough, thus leads to their not value of customer relationship management (CRM), so that make the company customer relationship management (CRM) exist behind the phenomenon with other small companies.

Low quality of employees – many SMEs are generally low education level of employees , personal qualities are not very high for customer relationship management concept in contemporary just do not understand how the proposed The wrong way to find customers – implement customer relationship management is the most important thing is to be familiar with the customer’s information, SMEs will be able to make a certain understanding and evaluation of each customer’s personality and behavior.(Yang Caidi,2008)

Small and medium-sized enterprises (smes) in customer relationship management (CRM), one of the most serious problems is the problem of the rights and responsibilities of the employee.As a customer relationship management system of the staff will have certain decisions, general small and medium-sized enterprises (smes) have what the customer wants and trading company in the first place is speak good deal with boss first, then contact customer relationship management, causes the staff has no right to talk to customer conditions, because the boss already talk to the customer good deal, but when the transaction problems, boss will put the blame on staff, why don’t blame them clear about customer’s information investigation beforehand, this kind of situation will lead to the customer relationship management staff have no motivation and enthusiasm in the work

1. Increase revenue – through (Data Mining) to enterprise resources and focus on betting valuable customers, and make the best understanding of consumer behavior patterns of customers, in order to promote the benefits of various marketing plan to improve sales performance 2. Increase profitability – the target customer base, increase the interaction between the consumer , in order to add new customers or existing customers to extend the life cycle. Through effective communication, businesses will be easier to maintain a customer’s loyalty and profitability 3. Reduce cost-CRM allows companies to better understand the customer, from the past to find customers for the product , to the needs of our customers today are designed products. Customer rather than product-oriented marketing strategy, companies can avoid unnecessary waste of resources in the absence of value on customer[23]

Social media

CRM often makes use of social media to build up customer relationships. Some CRM systems integrate social media sites like Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook to track and communicate with customers sharing their opinions and experiences with a company, products and services.[24] Enterprise Feedback Management software platforms such as Confirmit, Medallia, and Satmetrix combine internal survey data with trends identified through social media to allow businesses to make more accurate decisions on which products to supply.[25]

Non-profit and membership-based

Systems for non-profit and also membership-based organizations help track constituents, fund-raising, Sponsors demographics, membership levels, membership directories, volunteering and communication with individuals.

Customer-centric relationship management (CCRM)

CCRM is a style of customer relationship management that focuses on customer preferences instead of customer leverage. This is a nascent sub-discipline of traditional customer relationship management; to take advantage of changes in communications technology.

Customer centric organizations help customers make better decisions and it also helps drive profitability. CCRM adds value by engaging customers in individual, interactive relationships.[26]

Customer-centricity differs from client-centricity in that the latter refers almost exclusively to business-to-business models rather than customer-facing firms.

Features of CCRM

Customer-centric relationship management is used in marketing, customer service and sales, including:

  • tailored marketing,
  • one-to-one customer service,
  • retaining customers,
  • building brand loyalty,
  • providing information customers actually want,
  • subscription billing,
  • rewards.

Value-oriented customer relationship management

  1. As nowadays customers are becoming more demanding, and competitions are becoming more severe, and technology is more accelerating. More and more companies are seeking new ways to create and deliver better customer value in order to build and maintain close relationships with customers, thereby strengthening their sustainably competitive advantage. Therefore, a better understanding of customer value is the key to successful CRM application.[27]
  1. Customer value

Customer Value divided into functional value, social value, emotional value and perceived value. Functional value is that a product may offer convenient and methods to help customers solve problems in real life. The contribution of social value is that the responsibility and commitment of the customers – the customers through using their practical activities to satisfy the physical and psychic needs of society or others. Emotional value means that when the people’s physical needs are met, they begin to pursue social activities, self-esteem and achievement needs, mainly for seeking leisure, entertainment, lifestyle and emotional experience, such as a sense of interest, pleasure, and satisfaction. Perceived value refers to customers’ overall evaluation of the product or service, the cost that customer can perceive its benefits and pay.[27]

  1. Features of customer value

1. Closely related to customer value and provide material 2. Offer a customer from the customer’s perception of the utility of judgment, not by the vendor and other objective decision 3. Customer perceived value is perceived core interests, such as loss of interest and perceived quality trade-offs, interest and other utility. It is a customer of the product attributes, attribute effectiveness and use of the results of the evaluation 4. Preferences and perception of customer value, customer value and therefore the substance is considered to the desired level, based on customer perceived loss of profits and interest, such as the total cost includes monetary and non-monetization differences for products / services overall evaluation of the utility.

  1. Brand loyalty

For brand loyalty, definitely, brand loyalty is the key way for customers to achieve more profit.[27] Usually brand loyalty is considered to be a repeated purchase, but sometimes we cannot know if the customers are truly willing to have the second, third, or forth purchase. So there is another way which has been referred that is according to customers’ attitude to test their loyalty. Companies can send out questionnaires or web links that are about some choices comment on the different aspects on product and service. By using this way, companies can get some true feedback and purchase experience from customers in order to figure out if the customers are happy to use the product or not.

  1. Results

So only if the activities and operation of companies can stimulate the purchase motivation of customers,and good attitude and preference of brands such as repeat purchase and share good shopping experience to others ,basically it can be considered that enterprise has achieve a good performance on CRM. Also another benefit we can get is that good customer value and brand loyalty is a good drive to improve CRM performance, so providing better customer value and experience for customer is also a key way to implement CRM well. Accenture[28] and Emerald Insight[29] are now beginning to focus on CCRM as a discipline, with studies appearing on Mendeley.[30]

Adoption issues

In 2003, a Gartner report estimated that more than $2 billion had been spent on software that was not being used. According to CSO Insights, less than 40 percent of 1,275 participating companies had end-user adoption rates above 90 percent.[31] Many corporations only use CRM systems on a partial or fragmented basis.[32] In a 2007 survey from the UK, four-fifths of senior executives reported that their biggest challenge is getting their staff to use the systems they had installed. 43 percent of respondents said they use less than half the functionality of their existing systems.[33] Recently, it was found in a study that market research regarding consumers’ preferences may increase the adoption of CRM among the developing countries’ consumers.[34]

CRM Paradox

The CRM Paradox, also referred to as the “Dark side of CRM”,[35] entails favoritism and differential treatment of some customers. This may cause perceptions of unfairness among other customers’ buyers. They may opt out of relationships, spread negative information, or engage in misbehavior that may damage the firm. CRM fundamentally involves treating customers differently based on the assumption that customers are different and have different needs. Such perceived inequality may cause dissatisfaction, mistrust and result in unfair practices. A customer shows trust when he bonds in a relationship with a firm when he knows that the firm is acting fairly and adding value. However, customers may not trust that firms will be fair in splitting the value creation pie in the first place. For example, Amazon’s test use of dynamic pricing (different prices for different customers) was a public relations nightmare for the company.

Market leaders

The CRM market grew by 12.5 percent in 2012.[36] The following table lists the top vendors in 2006–2008 and 2013 (figures in millions of US dollars) published in Gartner studies.[37][38]

Vendor2013 Revenue2013 Share (%)2012 Revenue2012 Share (%)2008 Revenue2008 Share (%)2007 Revenue2007 Share (%)2006 Revenue2006 Share (%)
Salesforce.com CRM3,29216.12,525.614.096510.6676.58.3451.76.9
SAP AG2,62212.82,327.112.92,05522.52,050.825.31,681.725.6
Oracle2,09710.22,015.211.11,47516.11,319.816.31,016.815.5
Microsoft Dynamics CRM1,3926.81,135.36.35816.4332.14.1176.12.7
Others11,07654.110,086.855.73,62039.63,289.140.62,881.643.8
Total20,47610018,0901009,1471007,6741006,214100

Trends

In the Gartner CRM Summit 2010 challenges like “System tries to capture data from social networking traffic like Twitter, handles Facebook page addresses or other online social networking sites” were discussed and solutions were provided which would help in bringing more clientele.[39] Many CRM vendors offer subscription-based web tools (cloud computing) and software as a service (SaaS). Some CRM systems are equipped with mobile capabilities, making information accessible to remote sales staff. Salesforce.com was the first company to provide enterprise applications through a web browser, and has maintained its leadership position.[40]Traditional providers have recently moved into the cloud-based market via acquisitions of smaller providers: Oracle purchased RightNow in October 2011[41] and SAP acquired SuccessFactors in December 2011.[42]

The era of the “social customer”[43] refers to the use of social media (Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Google Plus, Pinterest, Instagram, Yelp, customer reviews in Amazon, etc.) by customers. CR philosophy and strategy has shifted to encompass social networks and user communities.

Sales forces also play an important role in CRM, as maximizing sales effectiveness and increasing sales productivity is a driving force behind the adoption of CRM. Empowering sales managers was listed as one of the top 5 CRM trends in 2013.[44]

Another related development is vendor relationship management (VRM), which provide tools and services that allow customers to manage their individual relationship with vendors. VRM development has grown out of efforts by ProjectVRM at Harvard’s Berkman Center for Internet & Society and Identity Commons‘ Internet Identity Workshops, as well as by a growing number of startups and established companies. VRM was the subject of a cover story in the May 2010 issue of CRM Magazine.[45]

In 2001, Doug Laney developed the concept and coined the term ‘Extended Relationship Management’ (XRM).[46] Laney defines XRM as extending CRM disciplines to secondary allies such as the government, press and industry consortia.

CRM futurist Dennison DeGregor describes a shift from ‘push CRM’ toward a ‘customer transparency’ (CT) model, due to the increased proliferation of channels, devices, and social media.[47]

See also

Notes

  1. Jump up^ Shaw, Robert, Computer Aided Marketing & Selling (1991) Butterworth Heinemann ISBN 978-0-7506-1707-9
  2. Jump up^ http://opencrm.co.uk/support.html
  3. Jump up^ http://www.salesforce.com/uk/service-cloud/overview/
  4. ^ Jump up to:a b http://www.microsoft.com/en-gb/dynamics/dynamics-online-support.aspx
  5. Jump up^ TopTen Reviews CRM Software Review
  6. Jump up^ http://opencrm.co.uk/plans-and-pricing.html
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Yun E. Zeng, H. Joseph Wen, David C. Yen, “Customer relationship management (CRM) in business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce”, Emerald 11, (2003).
  8. Jump up^ Piskar F., Faganel A. (2009). A successful CRM Implementation Project in a Service Company: Case Study.Organizacija, Vol: 42, pp. 199-208
  9. Jump up^ Balaram, A., Adhikari, B. (2010), Managing Customer Relationships in Service Organizations. Administration and Management Review, 21(2), 65-78.
  10. Jump up^ Harrigan, P. and Miles, M. (2014). From e-CRM to s-CRM. Critical factors underpinning the social CRM activities of SMEs. Small Enterprise Research, 21(1), pp.99-116.
  11. Jump up^ O’Murchu, I., Breslin, J.G., & Decker, S. (2004). Online social and business networking communities, DERI Technical Report 2004-08-11, SIGKDD’03. Washington, DC.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b Bolton, Ruth N. (1998), “A Dynamic Model of the Duration of the Customer’s Relationship with a Continuous Service Provider: The Role of Satisfaction,” Marketing Science, 17 (1), 45–65.
  13. Jump up^ Fornell, Claes (1992), “A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience,” Journal of Marketing, 56 (January), 6-22
  14. Jump up^ Rust, Roland T., Christine Moorman, and Peter R. Dickson (2002), “Getting Return on Quality: Revenue Expansion, Cost Reduction, or Both?” Journal of Marketing, 66 (October), 7–24
  15. Jump up^ Fornell, Claes (1992), “A National Customer Satisfaction Barometer: The Swedish Experience,” Journal of Marketing, 56 (January), 6–22
  16. Jump up^ Piccoli, Gabriele and L. Applegate (2003), “Wyndham International: Fostering High-Touch with High-Tech,” Case Study No. 9-803-092, Harvard Business School
  17. Jump up^ Reinartz, Werner, Manfred Krafft, and Wayne D. Hoyer (2004), “The Customer Relationship Management Process: Its Measurement and Impact on Performance,” Journal of Marketing Research, 41 (August), 293–305
  18. Jump up^ SAP Insider (15 November 2007) Still Struggling to Reduce Call Center Costs Without Losing Customers?
  19. Jump up^ Myron, David. DestinationCRM.com. Information Today, Inc. CRM in Customer Service http://www.destinationcrm.com/Articles/ReadArticle.aspx?ArticleID=99909 CRM in Customer Service. Retrieved 15 October 2014. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  20. Jump up^ Davenport, T.H., Harris, J.G., Kohli, A.K. (2001), “How do they know their customers so well?”, MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 42 No.2, pp.63-73.
  21. Jump up^ Rebekah Henderson, B2B Insights (2013) How to build a B2B-friendly CRM
  22. Jump up^ Cloud Taxonomy CRM Software as a Service
  23. Jump up^ Yang Caidi, (2008). Discuss and analyze the imorovements of strategy to CRM for SMEs, edition 22
  24. Jump up^ DestinationCRM.com (2009) Who Owns the Social Customer?
  25. Jump up^ Lester, Aaron (2013-04-23). “Seeking treasure from social media tracking? Follow the customer”. SearchBusinessAnalytics. Retrieved 2013-10-01.
  26. Jump up^ It’s all about the Customer, Stupid – The Importance of Customer Centric Partners
  27. ^ Jump up to:a b c Evans, M., Jamal, A. and Foxall, G. (2006). Consumer behaviour. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  28. Jump up^ Sales and Customer Services–CRM: Services Overview
  29. Jump up^ Customer-centric relationship management system development: A generative knowledge integration perspective
  30. Jump up^ CRM and customer-centric knowledge management: an empirical research
  31. Jump up^ Jim Dickie, CSO Insights (2006) Demystifying CRM Adoption Rates
  32. Jump up^ Joachim, David. “CRM tools improve access, usability.” (cover story). B to B 87, no. 3 (11 March 2002): 1
  33. Jump up^ David Sims, TMC.net (2007) CRM Adoption ‘Biggest Problem’ in 83 Percent of Cases
  34. Jump up^ Hasan, M. R., Rahman, M., And Khan, M. M. (2013). Rural Consumers’ Adoption of CRM in a Developing Country Context. International Journal of Business and Management Invention (IJBMI), 2(9), 121-131. [1]
  35. Jump up^ Nguyen, B. & Mutum, D. S. (2012). A review of customer relationship management: successes, advances, pitfalls and futures, Business Process Management Journal, 18 (3). 400-419 [2]
  36. Jump up^ Forbes.com (2013) 2013 CRM Market Share Update: 40% Of CRM Systems Sold Are SaaS-Based
  37. Jump up^ “Gartner Says Worldwide Customer Relationship Management Market Grew 23 Percent in 2007” (Press release). Gartner, Inc. 12 September 2008. Retrieved2008-08-15.
  38. Jump up^ “Gartner Says Worldwide CRM Market Grew 12.5 Percent in 2008” (Press release). Gartner, Inc. 15 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
  39. Jump up^ CRM Trends in Insurance IndustryCRM Trends in Insurance Industry: April, 2010
  40. Jump up^ Put Cloud CRM to WorkPC World: April, 2010
  41. Jump up^ Oracle Buys Cloud-based Customer Service Company RightNow For $1.5 BillionTechcrunch: 24 October 2011
  42. Jump up^ SAP Challenges Oracle With $3.4 Billion SuccessFactors Purchase Bloomberg Businessweek: 7 December 2011
  43. Jump up^ Greenberg, Paul (2009). CRM at the Speed of Light (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. p. 7.
  44. Jump up^ “Top 5 CRM Trends for 2013”. Enterprise Apps Today. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  45. Jump up^ Destinationcrm.com CRM Magazine: May, 2010
  46. Jump up^ [3] The Great Enterprise Balancing Act: Extended Relationship Management (XRM), Doug Laney, META Group publication, 10 December 2001
  47. Jump up^ DeGregor, Dennison (2011). Customer-Transparent Enterprise: Beyond 20th Century CRM. Motivational Press.ISBN 1-935723-23-5.